.

kI iswKF ny 1857 ivc gLwdfrI kIqI sI?

kI ieh ajLfdI dI pihlI jMg sI?

poR: ieMdr isMG Gwgf

jdoN vI Bfrq dI ajfdI vfry koeI vIcfr-crcf cldI hY qF aKbfrF, rsfilaF aqy ieiqhfsk pusqkF ivc bVy jor sLor nfl iehI pRcfiraf igaf hY ik 1857 ivc lVI geI jMg Bfrq dI ajfdI dI pihlI jMg sI. 1857 dy afp-hudry ivdroh nUM ieqny jLordfr ZMg nfl lok-mnf aMdr Tos idwqf igaf hY ik afKr bhu-igxqI lok ibnf hIl huwjq qoN ajfdI dI pihlI lVfeI mMn bYTy hn. Aupr hor isqm-jLrIPI vyKo, awzI cotI df jLor ies gwl 'qy BI lf idwqf igaf hY ik "1857 df gdr kdI PylH nf huMdf, agr iswK gLwdfrI nf krdy. Bfrq ny iewk sO sfl pihlF ajLfd ho jfxf sI, pr ienHF iswKF dI gLwdfrI kfrn hI aMgryjL pUry nwby sfl dysL nUM luwtdy rhy qy qbfhI mcfAuNdy rhy."

Bfrq Br qoN bulfey cotI dy ieiqhfskfrF df iewk ivsLfl sMmyln sMn 1957 ivc, kyNdrI srkfr dI srpRsqI aDIn idwlI ivKy swidaf igaf. ijs ivc ivcfr df muwK ivsLf sI-"sMn 1857 df gdr PyHl ikAuN hoieaf?" XUnIvristIaF ivcoN afey bVy nfmI ivdvfnf ny lMby cOVy BfsLn idwqy. sfiraF ny lwgpg iesy gwl 'qy pUrf jor lfieaf ik 1857 df gdr iswKF dI gLwdfrI kfrn nfkfm hoieaf. sO sfl dI lMmI gulfmI iswKF kfrn BfrqvfsIaF nUM brdfsLq krnI peI. iesy vwzy iekwT ivc pRiswD iswK ieiqhfskfr zf: gMzf isMG jI vI hfjLr sn, sgoN ies smfgm dy pRDfn vI Auh sn. smuwcI kOm nUM pYNdIaF iPtkfrF Auh brdfsLq n kr sky. cotI dy buwDIjIvIaF vloN iswKF nUM gLwdfr lPjL nfl pukfrnf AunHF df klyjf ivMnH irhf sI. aMq bhuq kuwJ vyK sux ky zf: sfihb dy KUn ny Aubflf KfDf. AunHf ros vjoN pRDfngI qoN asqIPf dy idwqf. nfl hI styj 'qy bolx df vkq mMg ilaf. sfry pfsy hlcl ijhI mwc geI. pRDfn ny qF aKIr ivc bolxf sI, pr ieh mfjrf kI hY? pihlF asqIPf, iPr bolx leI vkq dI mMg? sfry ibwt-ibwt qwk rhy sn. zf: gMzf isMG jI ny styj 'qy jf ky iswKF df pwK aijhy jordfr aqy bf-dlIlI ZMg nfl pysL kIqf, sfry suxn vfly dMg rih gey. sfrI ivcfr df muhfr hI bdl igaf, pfsf hI plt igaf. ieiqhfskfrF dy psIny Cutxy sLurU ho gey. jo bulfry bol rhy sn, Auh zf: sfihb dy jvfb sux ky iKskxy sLurU ho hey. ijnHF hflI bolxf sI, Auh socF ivc pY gey. kuwJ iewk ny nf bolxf hI ibhqr smiJaf. zf: gMzf isMG ny Bfrq ivcoN afey coxvyN ieiqhfskfrF dy sfhmxy jo kuwJ boilaf, Auh bhuq ijLafdf sI, ijsdf qswlIbKs juafb iksy ny vI nf idwqf. Auh sfrf kuwJ ieQy ibafn nhI ho skdf, pr Ausdf Bfv aqy sMKyp sfr kuJ ies qrHF hY:-

"awj dy ies mhwqv pUrn iekwT ivc sMn 1857 df gdr PylH hox dy kfrnf vfry ivcfrF kIqIaF jf rhIaF hn. lyikn sfrf qfx iesy nukqy 'qy kyNdrq irhf ik iswKF ny gLwdfrI nf kIqI huMdI qF ieh bgfvq kdI PylH nf huMdI. ies qrHF afK ky qusI sfrI iswK kOm dI byiejLqI kIqI hY. iswK kOm ny afpxI afbfdI dy mukfbly ikqy vwD kurbfnIaF kIqIaF hn, awj Ausy iswK smfj nUM dosLIaF vfly ktihry ivc KVHf kr idwqf igaf hY. mYN bYTf dyr qwk afpxy mn nfl zUMGfeI qwk ivcfr krdf irhf hF ik agr iswKF gLwdfrI kIqI hY qF kIhdy nfl aqy ikAuN? nhI! nhI!! ieh ieljfm srfsr JUTf aqy qwQF qoN swKxf hY. sB qoN pihlF qF ieh ivcfr kr leIey ik kI vfikaf eI 1857 df ivdroh ajLfdI dI pihlI lVfeI sI? nhIN, mY iksy vI sUrq ivc ies nUM ajLfdI dI pihlI jMg nhIN mMndf. ieh koeI XojnfbMd ZMg nfl CyiVaf igaf jhfd nhIN sI. mslf isrP gF aqy sUr dI crbI qoN BiKaf sI. iksy ny POjIaF ivc aPvfh PYlf idwqI ik kfrqUsF dIaF topIaF 'qy jo zwt lwgf hoieaf hY, Aus nUM gF aqy sUr dI crbI lwgI hoeI hY aqy Auh mUMh (dMdF) nfl KolHxf pYNdf sI. gF dI crbI qoN ihMdU qy sUr dI crbI qoN muslmfn BVkfht ivc af gey. mMgl pFzy nfmI iek POjI ny iesy kfrn guwsy ivc af ky aMgryjL POjI aPsr nUM myrT CfAuxI ivc golI mfr idwqI. bs sfrI by-isr pYr bgfvq df muwZ iewQoN hI bwJf sI. ijQy-ijQy pqf lgdf igaf, mfrDfV sLurU ho geI. pr ieh sB kuwJ Dfrimk BfvnfvF krky sI, dysL ajfdI dI Bfvnf krky nhI sI. kuwJ cqr lokF duafrf ies bycYnI nUM dysL dI ajLfdI leI lVI geI jMg iswD krn df Xqn kIqf jf irhf hY. sfry rjvfVy afpo-afpxy rfg alfp rhy sn. dysL axigxq tukiVaF ivc vMizaf hoieaf sI. sFJf kmFzr koeI nhI sI, koeI ivAuNq vI nhI sI.

mYN qF ies nUM ajLfdI leI lVI geI pihlI jMg hI nhI mMn skdf ikAuNik ihMdosqfn swq sO sfl qoN gulfmI dIaF jLMjLIrF ivc jkiVaf ipaf sI. jy ajLfdI leI pihlI vfr iksy Bfrq vfsI ny vMgfiraf qF Auh mhF-purK gurU nfnk sfihb jI sn ijnHF isMG grjnf nfl nfhrf bulMd kIqf:

jYsI mY afvY Ksm kI bfxI qYsVf krI igafnu vy lflo ] pfp kI jMÍ lY kfblhu Dfieaf jorI mMgY dfnu vy lflo ] srmu Drmu duie Cip Kloey kUVu iPrY prDfnu vy lflo ] kfjIaf bfmxf kI gl QkI agdu pVY sYqfnu vy lflo ] muslmfnIaf pVih kqybf kst mih krih Kudfie vy lflo ] jfiq snfqI hoir ihdvfxIaf eyih BI lyKY lfie vy lflo ] KUn ky soihly gfvIaih nfnk rqu kf kuMgU pfie vy lflo ]1] sfihb ky gux nfnku gfvY mfs purI ivic afKu msolf ] ijin AupfeI rMig rvfeI bYTf vyKY viK iekylf ] scf so sfihbu scu qpfvsu scVf inafAu krygu msolf ] kfieaf kpVu tuku tuku hosI ihdusqfnu smflsI bolf ] afvin aTqrY jfin sqfnvY horu BI AuTsI mrd kf cylf ] sc kI bfxI nfnku afKY scu suxfiesI sc kI bylf ]2]3]5] {pMnf 722-723}

hmlfvr bfbr ny gurU nfnk sfihb nUM jylH ivc bMd kIqf. AunHF qsIhy Jwly, cwkIaF pIsIaF [[[[. ajLfdI dI pihlI jMg AuWQoN sLurU huMdI hY. gurU arjn dyv jI hkUmq dIaF njLrF ivc bfgI sn, AunHF nUM vI asih qsIhy dy ky sLhId kr idwqf. Bfrq dy pihly mhfn sLhId gurU arjn sfihb hI sn. gurU hrgoibMd sfihb jI gvflIar dy iklHy ivc lMmy smy qwk jMgI kYdI dy rUp ivc bMd rhy. smyN-smyN cfr jMgF vI lVIaF. gurU qyg bhfdr sfihb axK, gLYrq aqy Drm dI ajLfdI leI idwlI ivc aOrMgjLyb ny sLhId kr idwqy. kI AunHF dI koeI jfqI dusLmxI sI? dsLmysL ipqf gurU goibMd isMG jI ny mnuwKI ajLfdI leI, smfj dI BlfeI leI jo GflF GflIaF, ksLt shy, qygF vfhIaF, ihMd-vfsIaF ivc axK, gYrq df sMcfr kIqf, Aus dI ikDry vI imsfl nhIN imldI. hr iswK sIs qlI 'qy rwK ky mYdfn ivc kuwd ipaf. bMdf isMG bhfdr ny iswK gwBrUaF nUM nfl lY ky bhfdr sLfh aqy PruKsLIar df nwk ivc dm kr idwqf. aMq axigxq XoiDaF smyq Auh ajLfdI dI sLmHF qoN afpf kurbfn kr gey. ieh ajLfdI dI KUMKfr jMg cldI rhI, sLsLqr tkrfAuNdy rhy, golI vrdI rhI, sUrmy iBVdy rhy, KUn dIaF ndIaF vihMdIaF rhIaF[[[[. pr ieh mrjIviVaF df kfPlf awgy hI awgy vDdf irhf. bMd-bMd ktdy rhy KoprIaF AuqrdIaF rhIaF, afry cldy rhy, dIvfrF ivc icxINdy rhy, dygF ivc Aubldy rhy, ajLfdI dI jMg, ijMdgI mOq dI jMg lVdy rhy. nvfb kpUr isMG, srdfr jwsf isMG afhlUvflIaf qy srdfr jwsf isMG rfmgVIaf, mhfrfjf rxjIq isMG, srdfr hrI isMG nlvf, bfbf dIp isMG, akflI PUlf isMG, srdfr sLfm isMG atfrI qy BfeI mhfrfj isMG[[[. ieh Prihsq bhuq lMmI hY, ienHF XoiDaF ny jLflm hfkmF nUM BfjVF puafeI rwKIaF.

iswKF ny drHf KYbr dy rsqy Bfrq nUM luwt ky lY jfx vfilaF df sdf leI rfh bMd kr idwqf. ijDroN cwly sI, AuDr vfps muVn 'qy mjbUr kr idwqy. sqluj qwk df pMjfb aPgfinsqfn df ihwsf bxf idwqf igaf sI. Auh vfps Koh ky Bfrq nfl iswKF ny hI joiVaf. pr qusIN smuMdrI rsqy aMgryjLF nUM afAux idwqf, iksy nf roikaf. aMq Auh sfry Bfrq 'qy kfbj ho gey. iewk pMjfb hI AunHF dI gulfmI qoN bicaf hoieaf sI, ijQy mhfrfjf rxjIq isMG dI kmfn hyT iswKF df rfj sI, qusIN Auh vI ajLfd nf rihx idwqf. byaMq mulKeIaf aMgryjL POj ivc BrqI ho igaf. mhfrfjf rxjIq isMG dy awKF mItidaF hI smuwcy Bfrq dIaF POjF pMjfb 'qy cVH peIaF. iewDr lfl isMG, gulfb isMG, iDafn isMG vrgy gLwdfr aMdrKfqy aMgryjLF nfl jf rly. dunIaF dI sB qoN sLkqIsLflI bfdsLfhI (aMgryjL) qy AuhnF kfrn sfrf ihMdosqfn hwQF ivc sLsLqr PVI iswKF nUM Kqm krn leI iqafr. iPr vI ies asfvI jMg ivc Kflsy ny Auh jOhr idKfey, jIhnUM lok rihMdI dunIaF qwk Xfd rwKxgy. kvI sLfh muhMmd ilKdf hY:

jMg ihMd pMjfb df hox lwgf, dovyN pfqsLfhI POjF BfrIaF ny.

nfl goilaF dy bMdy jfx Auzdy, hfQI Auzdy sxy aMbfrIaF ny.

awj hovy srkfr qF muwl pfvy, ijhVIaF KLflsy ny qygF mfrIaF ny.

sLfh muhMmdf iek srkfr bfJoN, POjF ijwq ky aMq nUM hfrIaF ny.

(jMg nfmf sLfh muhMmd)

aMgryjLI POj ivc sLfml ho ky dysI lokF ny iswKF qy jo kihr Zfieaf, Aus nUM koeI klm jF jLbfn ibafn nhIN kr skdI. iswKF dy Gr-Gft luwty aqy AujfVy gey, gwBrUaF nUM byrihmI nfl kql kIqf igaf, awgF lfeIaF, swB kuJ qihs-nihs kr idwqf. lwKF dy srdfr kwKF dy nf rihx idwqy. aOrqF dI bypqI kIqI geI. ihMdUaF vloN kIqy rONgty KVy kr dyx vfly jLulm hflI iswKF nUM Buwly nhIN sn. ikvyN Guwg vsdy pMjfb nUM aMgryjLF nfl rl ky imwtI ivc imlf idwqf igaf, ajLfdI nUM gulfmI ivc bdl idwqf igaf. iswK rfj dy Kfqmy nUM hflI ds sfl vI (1849) pUry nhIN hoey sn ik Bfrq ivc afp-hudrf ivdroh (1857) AuWT ipaf. ihMdU POjF vloN lfey gey zUMGy jLKm hflI iswKF nUM Buwly nhIN sn. iBafnk qbfhI qoN bfd hflI Auh sMBlx hI lwgy sn. not krn vflI gwl ieh hY ik iksy ihMdU muKI ny iswKF qwk phuMc kIqI? ivdroh ivc sLfml hox leI ikhf? iswKF sihmqI pRgt kIqI? iPr ijs jLulmI mugLl hkUmq ny sdIaF qwk awiqafcfr krky lwKF nOjuafnF nUM sLhId krvf ky Kqm kIqf sI, Ausy Kfndfn dy iewk awXfsL ivafkqI, bhfdr sLfh jLPr ny gwdI qy bYTxf sI. kI Ausy pfpI hkUmq nUM awgy ilafAux ivc iswK shfieqf krdy?

ijnHF rfijaF rjvfiVaF dy awj soihly gfey jf rhy hn, kOmI nfiekF vjoN AuBfiraf jf irhf hY, AunHF dy ikrdfr nUM vI prKx pVcolx dI jLrUrq hY. lksLmI bfeI, rfxI JFsI dI afpxI kOeI aOlfd nhIN sI. Aus df pqI rfjf bhuq awXfsL qy bdkfr qbIaq vflf sI. afpxIaF Kud shyVIaF ibmfrIaF kfrn Aus dI mOq ho heI.lksLmI bfeI ny iewk lVkf god lYxf cfihaf. pr aMgryjL hkUmq ienHF dy bdkfr kMmF qoN nfKusL sI. AuhnF muqbMnf lYx qoN mnfhI kr idwqI. muV Ausny aMgryjL hfkm nUM KLq ilK ky ds lwK rupey slfnf Krcf lY ky rfj Cwz dyx dI pysLksL kIqI. pr hkUmq tws qoN mws nf hoeI. aKIr do lwK lY ky rfj iqafgx leI qrly krdI rhI, iPr vI aMgryjL nf mMny. ieQy Xfd krvfAuxf Auicq hovygf ik lMzn dI vwzI lfiebryrI ivc lksLmI bfeI dy sfry hwQ-ilKq KLq mOjUd pey hn. ijnHF ivc Ausny smJOqy vfry iliKaf hoieaf hY. jdoN gwl iksy isry lgdI nf idsI qF lV mrnf hI ibhqr smiJaf. qFqIaf qopy aqy nfnf PrnvIs dI khfxI vI ies qoN koeI bhuqI cMgI nhIN hY. ieh sfry afpo afpxy inwjI suwKF leI Coty-Coty DrqI dy tukiVaF leI illkVIaF lY rhy sn, sFJy kfrj leI koeI vI nhIN lV irhf sI. ieQy ieh vI Xfd rwKxf jLrUrI hY ik afm prjf ienHF rjvfiVaF hwQoN byhwd duKI sI. axigxq ZMgF nfl lokF nUM mfiraf luwtaf aqy jLlIl kIqf jFdf sI. aMgryjL df rfj iehnF nfloN sYNkVy guxf cMgf sI.

qusIN 1857 dy by-isr pYr ivdroh nUM ajLfdI dI pihlI jMg kih rhy ho, mYN ies nfl sihmq nhIN hF. ieh sQfnk vkqI jnUMn sI. asl ajLfdI dI lVfeI qF gurU nfnk sfihb qoN sLurU ho cuwkI sI. iPr sfry Bfrq vfsIaF ny pMjfb nUM gulfm bxfAux ivc aMgryjLF df sfQ idwqf. bhuq vwzy suqMqr rfj nUM pRfDIn bxfAux ivc hwQ Toky bxy. iksy ihMdU muKI vloN iswKF qwk phuMc krky shfieqf dI mMg nhIN kIqI geI. iswKF vloN bgfvq ivc sLfml hox df vcn nhIN idwqf igaf. kuwJ lokF ny afpxI mnmfnI kIqI, pr gLwdfr iswKF nUM grdfinaF jf irhf hY. ikqnI sLrm dI gwl hY, ikqnI ZITqfeI nfl ieiqhfs nUM gMdlf kIqf jf irhf hY, iswKF 'qy GtIaf aqy JUTy ieljLfm lf ky!

ijnHF iswKF ny Bfrq vrsL dI afn-sLfn kfiem rwKx leI axigxq jfnF vfr idwqIaF, KUn dy diraf vgf idwqy, nvIN cyqnf pYdf kIqI, ijMdgI nUM nvyN arQ idwqy, dysL nUM tuwtx qoN bcfieaf, kI awj Bfrq vloN iswKF nUM iehI ienfm imlygf? iehI qfj itkygf isr qy gLdfrI df? myry kol kihx vfsqy bhuq kuJ hY, pr vkq iejfjLq nhIN idMdf. awj hI mYN iewk ikqfbcf ilK Cfp ky svyr qwk quhfzy hwQF ivc phuMcf idaFgf qF ik sfrI shI qsvIr sfhmxy af sky, qF ik sMsfr nUM pqf lwg sky ik ikvyN iek socI smJI sfijLsL aDIn iswKF nUM hONslf hIx qy jLlIl kIqf jf irhf hY."

swcmuwc rfqo rfq ikqfb ilKI geI. pMjfbI, ihMdI aqy aMgryjLI ivc sfeIklo stfeIl krky vMzI geI. ijs df bhuq awCf pRqIkrm hoieaf. dubfrf Aus iekwT ivc iswKF nUM gLwdfr kihx dI iksy ny jLurawq nf kIqI. pr bdlvyN ZMgF nfl guwJIaF cflF vrq ky iswKF nUM hIxy iswD krn ivc koeI ksr bfkI nhIN rihx idwqI jFdI. aPsos dI gwl vI hY ik iswK kOMm kol zf: gMzf isMG vrgy, inDVk, TIk vkq TIk gwl kih skx dy smrwQ, ivdvfn vI nhIN hn. iewko-iewk iswK ivdvfn ny Bfrq Br ivcoN afey coxvyN ieiqhfskfrF nUM lfjuafb kr idwqf. sMn 1857 dy gLdr vflI aslIaq dy bKIey AuDyV idwqy, aKOqI sLhIdF nUM icwq kr idwqf[[[. kI awj dy iswK ivdvfn, klm dI ajLfdI dI vkflq krn vfly, pMQk ihwqF vfly lyKk, klmF cuwk ky pMQ dI qRfsdI nUM sMsfr sfhmxy shI sMdrB ivc pysL krn dI dlyrI krngy? kI ies sMkt ivcoN inklx vfsqy koeI inwgr syD vI dyxgy?

 


Bfrq dI ajLfdI ivc iswKF df ihwsf.
iswK gYr iswK
1[ PFsI imlI 93 28
2[ Aumr kYd 2147 499
3[ jilHaF vfly bfg ivc mry 799 501
4[ bj-bj Gft 'c mry 67 46
5[ kUkf lihr 'c mry 91 -
6[ akflI lihr 'c mry 500 -
kuwl joV 3697 1074


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