.

rfDf suafmI gurU-zMmH

gursLrn isMG ksyl knyzf

rfDf suafmI gurU-zMmH dy bfnI sLRI idafl ishHM afgry dy KwqrI sn. ieh afgry ivwc siqsMg krdy sn. iehnF dy sLrDflU afp nUM suafmI dI pdvI nfl sMboDn krdy sn. afp dI iesqrI df nF rfDf sI. sLRI isLv idafl dy Auqr aiDkfrIaF ny rfDf suafmI gurU-zMmH clf ilaf.

ies mq ivwc sLKsI gurU dI pUjf, sLbd surq df mnoklipq aiBafs, iqRkutI, suMn guPf qy dsm duafr ivwc surq cVfH ky anhd sLbd suxn qy klpq rfDf suafmI Dfm qIk pujx dI Xog mq vFgU isiKaf idqI jFdI hY. gurU dI jUT ijs nUM ieh pRsfdI kihMdy hn, Kfx nUM puMn krm smiJaf jFdf hY. ieh mfs, sLrfb qF nhIN vrqdy pr huwkf, bIVI, isgryt jo sB qoN niKD nsLf hY, qoN afpxy sLrDflUaF nUM vrjdy nhIN; ikAuik aYsf krn krky ihMdUaF dI bhu igxqI ies mq qoN bfgI ho skdI hY.

sfr bcn ies mq dI pRisD pusqk hY. sLKLsI -pUjf qy gurU-zMmH dy kfrn sO sfl dy smyN ivwc ies mq dIaF keI gdIaF aqy sLfKF bx geIaF hn. ies mq df iek kyNdr afgry ivwc hY. dUsrI sLfK ibafs (pMjfb) ivwc vI hY.

iswK pltn ivwcoN bfbf jYml isMG suafmI isLv idafl dy sMprk ivwc afey bfad ivwc ibafs vflI gwdI dy moZI bxy. dUsry afgry dy iek zfkKfny mihkmy dy mulfjm rfie bhfdr sflg rfm afp dy cyly bxy. ieh hI asl ivwc rfDf suafmI mq dy clfAux vfly hn.

rfDf suafmI nfm koeI eIsLvr-vfdI nfm nhIN, nf hI ies dy mfieny sLbd surq dy hn. ieh isLv idafl ishuM isafmI dI pqnI rfDf dy nfm qy cilaf mq hY, ijs dy mfieny aqy rUp nUM bfad ivwc bdlx df ivarQ Xqn kIqf igaf hY.

rfDf suafmIaf dI ieh guwJI cfl hY ik iek pfsy gurbfxI dI kuvrqoN kr ky afpxf gurU-zMmH clfAuxf qy dUsry pfsy gurbfxI dI scfeI nUM jfxdIaF buJidaF hoieaF pRgt nf krnf. kI iehnF nUM gurU nfnk sfihb dy ienFH vfkF df pqf nhIN ?

( 1) sbdu gurU suriq Duin cylf ]( pMnf 943 )

( 2 ) sbdu gur pIrf gihr gMBIrf ibnu sbdY jgu bAurfnM]( pMnf 635 )

ijs qrFH klpq rfDf suafmI nfm pur ieh mq cilaf hY, iesy pRkfr jog mq dI nkl krky, rfDf suafmI, pMj nfm, AuhnF dy itkfxy qy aMdr sLbd hoxy mMndy hn. Auh pMj nfm ieh hn:

  1. joiq inrMjn 2[ EaMkfr 3[ inrMkfr 4[ sohM 5[ siqnfm

rfDf suafmIaF ny rfDf suafmI Dfm qIkr pujx leI iek bhuq luBfxf rUhfnI sPr df nksLf iKicaf hY. ies sPr nUM qYa krn leI pihloN aflVI pflqI afsx lfAuxf pYdf hY ijs anusfr pYrF Bfr bYTxf, AuNglF nfl kMn bMd kr lYxy aqy do AuNglF bMd kIqIaF hoeIaF awKF pr rwK lYxIaF. ies afsn qoN AuprMq awKF dy mwD iqRkutI ivwc surq nUM itkfAuxf, Auqy rfDf suafmI gurU dy srIr jF Poto df iDafn krnf aqy nfm nUM rtnf muK sfDn hY. ieQo sfr bcn dy kQn anusfr rUhfnI sPLr df afrMB huMdf hY.

ies sPLr ivwc Xojnf dI igxqI imxqI iksy ihsfbI ikqfbI df kMm hY, ikANik ikDry iliKaf hY, pihlF rUh pMj arb pJMqr kroV Xojn AuqfhF geI. iPr Krb Xojn zUMGfeI ivwc clI geI, AuQy jf ky AuqFh prq afeI. ieh nrol gDI gyV ivwc pYx vflI gwl hI hY, pr aslIaq kuJ vI nhIN.

rUhfnI sPLr dIaF JfkIaF qoN ibnF rfDf suafmI jogmq dy dsy hoey Cy cwkrF ivwcoN vI surq nUM GumfAuNdy hn. ies qoN sihjy hI anumfn lfieaf jf skdf hY ik ikvyN jog mq dI nkl krky ienFH ny Boly Bfly lokF nUM BMbl-BuisaF ivwc pfAux df Xqn kIqf hY.

rfDf suafmI jo nfm idMdy hn Aus nUM gupq guMJldfr qy jlybIdfr ibafn krdy hn ik iksy nUM dsxf nhIN, pr iswKI ivwc prmfqmf dy nfm nUM gupq nhIN mMinaf igaf. dsm pfqsLfh ny pMjF ipafiraF nUM gurmMqr df aiDkfr dy ky spsLt kr idwqf hY ik nfm koeI gupq nhIN.

rfDf suafmI vkq-gurU qy byvkq gurU vI mMndy hn. sfrbcn ivwc ieh iliKaf hY:

ipClyoN kI qj tyk, qyry Bly kI khUM ]

vkq gurU ko mfn, qyry Bly kI khUM ]

ies anusfr jy bIq cuikaf dI tyk nhIN rwKxI qy vkq gurU nUM hI mMnxf hY qF rfDf suafmIaF dy ipCly sfry gurUaF dI koeI mhfnqf nhIN rihMdI qF iPr afgry ivwc isLv idafl isMhu dI smfDI iek sO sfl qoN Aupr smyN qoN bx rhI hY. dwso mr cuwky by-vkq-gurU dI smfDI bxfAux aqy AuhnF dIaF pusqkF Cfpx df kI Pfiedf jy vkq gurU nUM hI mMnxf hY ?

jy rfDf suafmIaF pfsoN suafmI isLv idafl dy vkq gurU df nfm puCIey qF kihMdy hn:

"Aun kf gurU nfd Qf. AunoH ny aor iksI sy AupdysL nhIN lIaf" .

ies qoN iswD huMdf hY ik vkq-gurU dI koeI jLrUrq qy mhfnqf nhIN. jy isLv idafl df gurU nfd ho skdf hY qF bfkI lokF df gurU sLbd ikAuN nhIN ho skdf ?

sfr bcn CotI ivwc iliKaf hY:

" grMQ gurU nhIN ho skdf, voh qoN jVH hY, Kud bolqf nhIN aor nf AupdysL kr skqf hY" .

ies dy Ault rfDf suafmI mq dy dUjy gurU rfie bhfdr sflg rfm ilKdy hn:

"kul mflk df srUp sLbd hY. siqnfm pfrbRhm afqmf pRmfqmf kul jIv BI sLbd srUp hY. bgYr sLbd dI Aupfsnf aor koeI koeI iDafn inj Gr myN nhIN phuMcf skqf. kul jIvoN ko jo apnf AuDfr cfhqy hYN, lfjLmI hY ik aMqr myN sLbd gurU ky crnoN my lgy".( prym pwqr, sPf 14, ijld 4, bcn 2 )

ieh rfDf suafmIaF dIaF afpf ivroDI gwlF hn. iek pfsy kihMdy hn ik isLv idafl df nfd gurU sI qy dUjy pfsy kihMdy hn, grMQ gurU nhIN ho skdf, jo sLbd aqy afqimk igafn df sMgRih hY. qIsrI QF vkq-gurU dI zugI ipwtdy hn. cOQI QF byvkq-gurUaF arQfq pihly gurUaF dIaF mVHIaF bxfeI jFdy hn. asl ivwc ieh afp BMbl Busy ivwc Psy hoey hn ik gurU kOx hY ?

sLKsI-pUjf qy gurU-zMmH dy kfrn rfDf suafmIaF ivwc keI gwdIaF kfiem ho geIaF hn. AunFH ivckfr pUjf-Byt qy jfiedfd leI bVI mukwdmybfjLI hoeI hY. idafl bfgL, suafmI bfgL qy alfhhfbfd dy gurUaF ivckfr keI mukwdmy ho cuwky hn. ieh mukwdmy-bfjLI lMzx dI pRIvI kOsl qIk geI hY.

aKIr ivwc iek gwl dwsxI cfhuMdy hF ik rfDf suafmI ivwc keI iksm dy gurU mMndy hn. sLRI isLv idafl nUM sMq siqgurU, kul mflk, rfDf suafmI df avqfr mMndy hn. Aus qoN ipCoN iksy nUM sfD gurU, iksy nUM gurmuK gurU, iksy nUM vkq gurU qy ho cuwky gurUaF nUM by-vkq gurU dsdy hn.

rfDf suafmIaF dI jo ibafs vflI gwdI cl rhI hY ieh bfbf jYml isMG ny clfeI sI . POj qoN rItfier ho ky 1891 ivwc diraf ibafs dy kMZy ipMz vVYc qy bl srF dy lfgy af itky. bl srF dy iswKF ny bfbf jYml isMG nUM iswK sfDU smJ ky ipMz dI sFJI jLmIn ivwcoN Drmsflf bxfAux leI igafrF knfl solF mrly jLmIn idwqI, ijs dI irjstrI nMbr 254 imqI 14 jUn 1897 nUM gurU gRMQ sfihb dy nfm hoeI . Aus ivwc iliKaf hY:

" gurU gRMQ sfihb vfikaf Drmsflf muqMijLm bfiehqmFm jYml isMG sfD jwt".

ieMqkfl dI qsdIk ivwc drj hY:

"BfeI jYml isMG nUM ieh jLmIn rihn jF bYa krn df hwk hfsl nhIN hY. afm Drmsflf muqwlkf rhygI".

bl srF ipMz dy ijnFH muKIaF ny ieh jLmIn gurU gRMQ sfihb dy nfm rijstrI kIqI, AunFH dy nfm sn lflU nMbrdfr, mqfb isMG, Bfn isMG, bUV isMG, sLyr isMG qy guridwq isMG.

bfbf jYml isMG df 1903 ivwc dyhFq ho igaf. AunFH dI QF bfbU sfvx isMG jfnsLIn bxy. 10 meI 1905 nUM sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb dy nfm Drmsflf dI hoeI rijstrI df ieMqkfl nMbr 536 hoieaf. Aus ivwc drj hY ik sfvx isMG cylf jYml isMG bRfey mohqimm. zyry vflI asl QF gurU gRMQ sfihb dy nfm hI rhI.

bfbU sfvx isMG ny gurbfxI dy sLbd iekwqr krky gurmiq isDFq nfm dI iek poQI CpvfeI . ijs ivc ikDry ikDry ijLMdf gurU qy gurmiq qoN Aulwt vI vfk drj hn.

ijvyN ik pMnf 66 qy drj hY :

"gRMQ poQIaF sfnUM siq dI Coh nhIN dy skdIaF".

kyhI by-dlIl afpf ivroDI gwl ilKI hY. iek pfsy gurmiq isDFq, pRym pwqr qy sfr bcn qy hor poQIaF Cfp ky lokF nUM idMdy qy AunFH dI kQf suxFANdy hn. jy gRMQF qoN siq dI Coh pRfpq nhIN ho skdI qF iPr AunfH dy Cfpx qy kQf krn df kI lfB hY ?

keI kihMdy hn, rfDf suafmI qF siqsMg vyly gurbfxI dI vrqoN hI krdy hn. ieh Xfd rwKx dI loV hY ik rfDf suafmI gurbfxI nUM gurmiq drsfAux leI nhIN pVHdy blik afpxy gurU-zMmH dy pRcfr ihq vrqdy hn. anuBv qy afqm igafn siqgurUaF aqy BgqF df ibafn krky ipCoN ieh kihxf ik sfnUM gurU mMno, afpf ivroDI aqy hfso-hIxI gwl hY.

sMn 1947 ivwc bfbU sfvx isMG ny keI sfQIaF nUM ikhf ky myry Auqr-aiDkfrI sMq ikRpfl isMG hoxgy. pr Auh nhIN bx sky. 1948 ivwc bfbU jI df dyhFq ho igaf. bfbU jI dy poqry sR[ crn isMG ny ibafs vfly rfDf suafmIaF nfl gMZ-qup kr ky srdfr bhfdr jgq isMG nUM gurU bxfieaf. sMn 1951 ivc AuhnF df idhFq hox ipCoN s: crn isMG gurU bx gey. AunFH ivruD sMn 1954 ivc ipMz bl srF dy sfDU isMG, qyjf isMG, drsLn isMG aqy gurdfs mwl ny sInIar sb jwj aMimRqsr dI adflq ivwc iek kys dfier kIqf ik zyrf bfbf jYml isMG dI 11 knfl 16 mrly jLmIn sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb dy nF rijstrI hY, AuQy purfqn mrXfdf kfiem rwKI jfvy. 24 jUn 1954 nUM sR: crn isMG ny jvfbI dfhvy ivwc ikhf:

"asIN gurU gRMQ sfihb nUM iesLt nhIN mMndy. ieh QF sfzI injI jfiedfd hY. gurU gRMQ sfihb dI bIV cuk idwqI geI hY".

sR, qyjf isMG qy sfDU isMG dy kys df PYslf hfeI kort ivwcoN AunFH dy hwk ivwc hoieaf.

1957 ivc sR: crn isMG ny 30 eykV jLmIn df kfnUn lfgU hox pr rfDf suafmI siqsMg ibafs susfietI bxfeI aqy Aus dI vIto pfvr afpxy hwQ ivwc rwKI. sR: crn isMG kihMdy hn ik mYN jfiedfd df vfhd mflk hF. Auh bfbU sfvx isMG vFgU iswK rUp ivwc hox krky, Boly Bfly iswKF nUM gurbfxI dI afV ivc PLsf ky afpxf gurU-zMmH clf rhy hn.

zyry df pRbMD nvIn qy suDry hoey qrIky df hox kfrn cfh, rotI afid ssqI Ckf ky, syvfdfrF dI Brmfr, afey gey qy pRBfv pf ky lokF nUM afpxy mwq ivwc dfKl kr rhy hn. dUsry pfsy sfzIaF muKI jQybMdIaF iswK mwq dy glq pRBfv pfeI jf rhIaF hn, ijs kfrn lokF nUM iswK mq dI soJI nf hox kfrn, iehnF dyhDfrI gurU-zMmH dy zyiraF dI bfhrmuKI cmk dmk, afpxy vwl iKcx ivwc qyjLI nfl kfmXfb ho rhI hY. loV hY vylf sMBflx dI. iswKI dI scfeI nUM prgt krky dyhDfrI gurU-zMmH dI aslIaq qoN lokF nUM jfxU krfAux dI qF ik gurbfxI curf ky gurU bxn vfilaF dy jfl ivwc Psx qoN lokF nUM bcfieaf jf sky.

(siqkfr sihq iswK imsLnrI kflj luiDafxf vwloN "sLbd gurU aqy dyhDfrI gurU-zMmH" dI ikqfb ivwcoN )

not: iswK Drm dy vfrsF nUM ieh hmysLF Xfd rwKxf cfhIdf hY ik iswK kOx hY. ieh jfxn leI pMQ pRvfinq iswK rihq mrXfdf nfl juVIey:

iswK dI qfrIP:- jo iesqrI jF pursL iek akfl purK ds gurU sfihbfn ( sRI gurU nfnk dyv jI qoN lY ky sRI gurU goibMd isMG qk) sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb aqy ds gurU sfihbfn dI bfxI qy iswiKaf aqy dsmysL jI dy aMimRq Auqy inscf rwKdf aqy iksy hor Drm nUM nhIN mMndf, Auh iswK hY.

ieh hryk iswK ny injI qOr qy afpxy igrybfn ivwc Jfk ky vyKxf hY ik kI mYN Aupr idwqI iswK rihq mrXfdf anusfr iswK hF jF nhIN; jLrf ies bfry ivcfrIey.




.