.

iswK kOm dI inafrI hsqI nUM KLqm krn dI sfijLsL df iek vwzf mohrf - goibMd sdn idwlI
iswK Drm dy jnm qoN hI ies dI inafrI qy invyklI hoNd nUM KLqm krn dy Xqn qy sfijLsLF huMdIaF rhIaF hn. ies ivc vI koeI sLwk nhIN ik ieh Xqn qy sfijLsLF bRfhmxvfdI toly vloN huMdIaF rhIaF hn. jy iswDy qrIky nfl iswK kOm nUM KLqm nhIN kIqf jf sikaf qF ienHF bRfhmxvfdI qfkqF ny apxf bhuq purfxf qy kfPLI kfrgr qrIkf, ies Drm dI ivcfrDfrf nUM imlgoBf bxf ky Aus dI inafrI hoNd nUM imtfAux df apxfieaf. buD Drm dy mfmly ivc, bRfhmxvfdI qfkqF df ieh qjrbf kfmXfb irhf sI. ieh qrIkf ienHF qfkqF ny iswK Drm qy vI vriqaf. gurU kfl smyN vI ieh qfkqF keI gur sMqfnF nUM apxy jfl ivc Psf ky gurUaF qy iswKI ivcfrDfrf ivruD vrqdIaF rhIaF. gurU goibMd isMG jI dy joqI joiq smfAux qoN bfad qF ienHF nUM KulHI CuwtI iml geI ikAuNik Aus smyN iswK qF apxI hoNd dI slfmqI vfsqy jMglF ivc Btk rhy sn. Aus smyN hI ienHF qfkqF ny bRfhmxvfdI sfihq (dsm gRMQ df bhuq vwzf Bfg, guriblfs qy hor) qy bRfhmxvfdI pRcfrkF (iswKI Bys ivc) ijvyN AudfsI, inrmly afid rfhIN iswK sMsQfvF qy kbjLf kr ky apxI sfijLsL qy aml kIqf.
ajoky smyN ivc ienHF bRfhmxvfdI qfkqF dI sfijLsL df ihwsf iswKI Bys vfly zyrydfr hn jo iswKI nUM imlgoBf bnfAux leI qy iswKF nUM gurU gRMQ sfihb dI ivcfrDfrf nfloN qoV ky krm kFzI bxf rhy hn. ienHF ivc gurU zMm rfDfsuafmI, inrMkfrI, Binafrf, afsLUqosL afid qy hor iswKI Bys vfly axigxq zyrydfr hn. ienHF coN hI iek zyrf hY, idwlI df goibMd sdn. ies dy srpRsq hn koeI bfbf ivrsf isMG (iswK Bys ivc bRfhmx). pMj qy Cy sqMbr dy spoksmYn ivc ies zyry vloN bfbf sRI cMd dy pRkfsL idhfVy nUM mnfAux dI KLbr lwgI hY.
iswKF dy gurU nfnk jI dI ivcfrDfrf qoN Btk jfx df ies qoN vwzf sbUq kI ho skdf hY ik ijs qrHF iswK gurU nfnk sfihb qy hor gurUaF dy pRkfsL Auqsv mnfAuNdy hn Ausy qrHF gurmiq ivroDI hsqIaF (bfbf sRI cMd qy hor) dy vI pRkfsL purb mnf rhIaF hn. iswKF df gurU, gurbfxI hY, ieiqhfs jF imiQhfs nhIN. gurbfxI dI ksvwtI qy priKaF ieh sihjy hI pqf lgdf hY ik ieh bfbf sRI cMd gurbfxI isDFqF dy ivroDI sn. sLfied ieh gurU nfnk ivcfrDfrf ivruD bRfhmxvfdI qfkqF df pihlf mohrf sn. ies nfl koeI PLrk nhIN pYNdf ik Auh gurU nfnk dyv jI dy puwqr sn (spuwqr nhIN). iswKI ivc isDFq muwK hn, ivakqI nhIN. ieh gwl gurU sfihb ny sRI cMd nUM gwdI dy kfbl nf smJ ky dws idqI sI. isDFqk qOr qy sRI cMd gurmiq iPLlfsPLI dy ivroDI sn, so iswKF df AuunHF nfl koeI sbMD nhIN hY pr ijvyN iswK gurbfxI rUpI gurU qoN mUMh moV ky bfbf sRI cMd df pRkfsL Auqsv mnf rhy hn, Aus nUM vyK ky gurbfxI df ieh vfk lfgU huMdf hY aMDI reIaq igafn ivhUxI, Bfih Bry murdfr. bRfhmxvfdIaF vloN pRclq sfKIaF sfzf gurU nhIN hn.
zyrf goibMd sdn vflI KLbr ivc iliKaf hY (5 sMqbr dI KLbr) ik bfbf ivrsf isMG anusfr gurU aMgd dyv jI ny apxf puwqr bfbf dfsU jI, gurU amrdfs jI ny apxf puwqr bfbf mohn jI, gurU rfmdfs jI ny bfbf mohrI jI qy CyvyN pfqsLfh ny bfbf guridwqf jI nUM bfbf sRI cMd nUM smripq kIqf sI. ieh swB bRfmhxvfdI sfKIaF dy afDfr qy ikhf jFdf hY. aslIaq ivc bfbf guridwqf jI df jnm bfbf sRI cMd dy idhFq qoN keI mhIny bfad hoieaf sI.
awgy JUT df pulMdf iliKaf hY ik bfbf sRI cMd gurU nfnk sfihb (apxy ipqf) jI dI isiKaf df pRcfr 149 sfl qk gurU nfnk sfihb vloN clfeI geI AudfsI rIq anusfr krdy rhy jdik swc ieh hY ik gurU nfnk dyv jI ny gRihsQ mfrg nUM hI swB qoN Xog mMinaf, nfl hI AuunHF ny AudfsI qy aYsy hor gRihsQ dy iqafgI mqF df apxI bfxI ivc BrpUr KMzn kIqf. Audfhrx vfsqy bfbf sRI cMd vrgy gRihsq iqafgIaF leI gurvfk hY :
puMar qfp gyrI ky bsqRf]
apdf kf mfiraf igRh qy nsqf]
dys Coiz prdysi Dfieaf]
pMc cMzfl nfly lY afieaf]
kfn Prfie ihrfey tUkf]
Gir Gir mFgY iqRpqfvn qy cUkf]
binqf Coz bd ndir prnfrI]
vys n pfeIaY mhf duiKafrI]
(pMnf 1348)
swc ieh hY ik bfbf sRI cMd gurgwdI nf imlx kr ky gurU nfnk qoN afkI ho igaf aqy gurU Gr ivroDIaF dy hwQy cVH igaf nfik gurU nfnk dyv jI ny koeI AudfsI mwq clfieaf. (ivrsf isMG anusfr) awgy apxy zyry dIaF gurmiq ivroDI krqUqF df pRgtfvf afp hI krdy hoey ivrsf isMG kihMdy hn, goibMd sdn ivc ijQy hr smyN aKMz pfT, hvn, jfp sfihb df pfT, cMzI dI vfr dy pfT, hjLrq eIsf df siqkfr ho irhf hY, AuQy iek msijd ivc rojLfnf nmfjL adf kIqI jFdI hY qy ihMdU, muslmfn, iswK, eIsfeI rl iml ky hnUMmfn cflIsf vI pVHdy hn ijs kfrn keI sLrDflUaF nfl anoKy rUp ivc hr rojL kuwJ nf kuwJ vfprdf hI rihMdf hY. hr pYgLMbr dy idn iqAuhfr vI ieQy goibMd sdn ivc mnfey jFdy hn. ies bfry puCy iek pRsLn ivc bfbf jI ny smJfieaf ik ieh rIq sfzy iswK gurU sfihb vloN clfeI geI hY.
hux pfTk afp hI smJ lYx ky ies zyry ivc sfry gurmiq ivroDI krm kFz ho rhy hn pr hYrfnI hY ik ieh bfbf ies sfrI mnmiq nUM gurU sfihb dI clfeI rIq dws irhf hY. iksy akfl qKLq dy aKOqI jQydfr ny ies nUM puwCx dI koisLsL nhIN kIqI ik ikhVy gurU sfihb ny hvn qy hnUMmfn cflIsf pVHn dI rIq clfeI blik ieho ijhy krm kFzF df KMzn krdy anykF gurU vfk gurU gRMQ sfihb ivc iml jfxgy. ienHF aKOqI jQydfrF (bRfhmxvfdIaF dy JolI cuk) nUM qF isrPL AuhI gurmuK ivdvfn Cykx vfsqy njLr afAuNdy hn jo ienHF bRfhmxvfdI krm kFzF iKLlfPL ilKdy hn. bfkI rhI vwK vwK rfjF qy dysLF qoN afeI sMgq dI gwl. ies bfry qF ieh hI ikhf jf skdf hY. sMsfr ivc swcy igafn ivhUxy lokF dI koeI kmI nhIN hY. gurmiq anusfr sMgq dI pirBfsLf hY siqsMgq kYsI jfnIaY ijQy eyko nfAu vKfnIaY pr ies zyry dI BIV nUM sMgq nhIN sgoN igafnI ivhUxI ByzF df vwg kihxf ijLafdf shI rhygf.
6 sqMbr dy spoksmYn ivc vI 11 nMbr sPLy qy bfbf ivrsf isMG dI PLoto nfl iek KLbr lwgI hY bfbf sRI cMd dI isiKaf Aupr aml jLrUrI, bfbf ivrsf isMG. ies KLbr ivc vI ies bfby vloN AUl-jlUl dfavy kIqy gey hn pr jo ieqrfjLXog hY Auh ieh hY ik bfbf sRI cMd jI ny AudfsI rIq gurU nfnk dI isiKaf anusfr clfeI jdik swc Aupr disaf jf cuwkf hY ik bfbf sRI cMd gurU nfnk ivcfrDfrf qoN Btikaf hoieaf iek ivroDI sI. Auh AudfsI qy jog mwq df pRcfrk sI ijs df bfxI ivc anykF vfr KMzn kIqf igaf hY. srb sFJIvflqf vfsqy jLrUrI hY ik hr koeI apxI iewCf anusfr apxf Drm pflx kry nfik sfry mqF nUM imlgoBf bxf idqf jfey. ieh zyrf bRfhmxvfdI pRcfr qfkqF dy iesLfry Auqy dsm gRMQ dy ieMtrnYt Auqy pRcfr leI juitaf hooieaf hY.
aMq ivc pfTkF smyq sfry iswK jgq nUM gujLfirsL hY ikafAu ies sdI ivc swc rUpI gurU gRMQ sfihb dI ivcfrDfrf nfl juVIey. sfzy vfsqy hr Auh sLKLs siqkfrXog hY ijs df jIvn gurbfxI ivcfrDfrf anusfr hY. dUjy pfsy ijs vI mnuwK df jIvn gurbfxI ivcfrDfrf dy Ault hY, Auh sfzy vfsqy koeI mfieny nhIN rKdf, bysLk Auh gurU sfihb df puwqr hI ikAuN nf hovy. ies leI bfbf sRI cMd vI bfbf rfmrfie vFgU gurmiq ivcfrDfrf qoN Btikaf hoieaf sI. so bfbf sRI cMd df pRkfsL idhfVf mnfAuxf swcy iswK vfsqy gurU ivroDI hY. jy iPr vI iswK sRI cMd df pRkfsL idhfVf mnf rhy hn qF ienHF dI hflq bfry iehI ikhf jf skdf hY :
kbIr sfcf siqguru ikaf krY jAu isKf mih cUk]
aMDy lok nf lfgeI ijAu bFsu bjfeIaY PUk]
(pMnf 1372)
iswK pMQ nUM loV hY sucyq hox dI. iswKF nUM zyrfvfdIaF dy ies kohV qoN bcx dI loV hY. ies ivc koeI sLwk nhIN ik iswKI Bys ivc KVI kIqI geI ieh sMqF/bfibaF dI zyrfvfdI PLOj iswKI nUM imlgoBf bnfAuxf locdIaF bRfhmxvfdI qfkqF dI KVI kIqI hoeI hY. smF af igaf hY ik iswK pMQ hr qrHF dy sMqF/bfibaF, zyiraF dy cMgul ivcoN inkl ky isrPL apxy mUl gurbfxI nfl juVn. qF hI KLflsy df inafrfpn muV vfps af skdf hY. gurU goibMd isMG jI dI ieh cyqfvnI hmysLf Xfd rKo.
jb lg Kflsf rhy inafrf, qb lg qyj idAu mY sfrf]
jb ieh gey ibprn kI rIq mY n krhu ien kI pRqIq.
rivMdr isMG ipMjOr


drbfr sfihb ivc nvyN gRMQIaF df ivroD ikAuN?
4 sqMbr dy pMjfbI itRibAUn aKLbfr ivc iek KLbr pVHI sRI drbfr sfihb dy iqMn gRMQIaF dI inXukqI df mfmlf. ies KLbr ivc disaf igaf hY ik dmdmI tksfl (DuMmf grup), inhMg isMG jQybMdIaF, dmdmI tksfl (rfm isMG grup) qy iek afpUM bxy iswK ivdvfn ny aYs[jI[pI[sI[ vloN drbfr sfihb ivc iqMn gRMQIaF dIaF inXukqIaF df ivroD kIqf hY. ieh iqMn nvyN gRMQI hn : mfn isMG, igafnI jspfl isMG qy igafnI gurbKLsL isMG gulsLn (ieMglYNz).
hux vfrI vfrI ienHF aKOqI iswK jQybMdIaF qy ivdvfnF dy ieqrfjLF qy ivcfr krdy hF. ienHF swB dy ivroD df muwK kfrn ieh hY ik ieh iqMnoN nvyN gRMQI kuwJ kuwJ imsLnrI ivcfrDfrf dy hn aqy gurmiq isDFqF dI cMgI soJI rKdy hn. swB qoN vwzI gwl (jo ivroD krn vfilaF nUM cuBdI hY) ieh hY ik nvyN lgfey jfx vfly gRMQI aKOqI dsm gRMQ nUM pUrf gurU ikRq nhIN mMndy. ivroD krn vfly sfry hI gurmiq isDFqF dI imwtI pwutx vfly, dsm gRMQ dy pwky hmfieqI hn. pihlF gwl krdy hF dmdmI tksfl (DMumf grup) dI. ienHF ny kdy akfl qKLq vloN pRvfnq iswK rihq mirafdf nUM nhIN mMinaf. ienHF dy muKI vloN gurmiq ivroDI krm kFz ijvyN hvn, clIhy kwtx dIaF KLbrF ipCly smyN aKLbfrF dIaF surKLIaF bxdIaF rhIaF hn. ipCly kfPLI smyN qoN drbfr sfihb ivc gRMQI, kIrqnIey iesy tksfl qoN pVHy hoey swjx hI lgdy rhy hn. AuunHF df imafr qy gurmiq isDFqF dI soJI ikMnI hY, Aus df nmUnf ienHF ivcoN jQydfr bxy kuwJ gRMQIaF dIaF krqUqF qoN hI lfieaf jf skdf hY. ienHF df piVHaf iek gRMQI aKOqI isMG sfihb bx ky iswKF nUM sLryafm lv-kusL dI sMqfn aYlfn krdf irhf. dUsrf gur inMdf nfl BrpUr pusqk gur iblfs pf[ 6 dI kQf gurdvfiraF ivc surU krvfAux leI qrlomwCI ho irhf hY qy koeI gRMQI, nfl dy syvfdfrF nUM nIc qy nIvIN jfq dy kih ky gflF kZdf irhf hY. ieh qF drbfr sfihb dy gRMQIaF dI inXukqI vfsqy apxy gurmiq isDFqF qoN kory tksflI gRMQIaF dI inXukqI nUM apxf jwdI hwk smJI bYTy hn.
hux ienHF df ieqrfjL vI vyK lvo. gurmiq dI mfVI motI jfxkfrI rwKx vflf vI ienHF df ieqrfjL pVH ky isr pkV lvy. gurmiq ivroDI krm kFz (hvn qy clIhf) krn vfly ies muKI df ieqrfjL hY ik ienHF nvyN gRMQIaF ivcoN iek jspfl isMG AuunHF ivakqIaF ivc sLfml sI ijnHF ny iswK rvfieqF dy Ault pMj ipafiraF ivc aMimRqDfrI aOrqF nUM sLumfr krvfieaf. iesqrI jfqI pRqI ieMnI nPLrq rwKx vfly kI ieh iswK aKvfAux dy hwkdfr vI hn? ikAuNik iswK qF ies isDFq nUM mMndf hY so ikAu mMdf afKIaY ijqu jMmih rfjfn] ieho ijhI gurmiq soJI qF hY ies sMsQf dy muKI dI. bfkIaF df qF rwb hI rfKf hY. gwl krdy hF dmdmI tksfl (rfm isMG grup) dy muKI rfm isMG jI dy ieqrfjL dI. ienHF df koeI ksUr nhIN hY. ivcfrDfrf qF ienHF ny vI Ausy tksfl qoN gRihx kIqI hY ijs dI gurmiq soJI df ijLkr asI pihlF kr afey hF. alwg qF isrPL pRDfngI jF muKI dI pdvI nf imlx kr ky hoey sn. ienHF df kihxf hY ik nvyN gRMQIaF dI inXukqI, hux qk clI af rhI rvfieq dy Ault hY. rvfieq qF sLfied iehI hY ik dmdmI tksfl ivcoN gRMQI ley jfx. hor koeI ienHF dI njLr ivc sLfied ies pdvI dy kfbl hI nhIN hY.
hux gwl krdy hF qIsry muwK ieqrfjL krqf (KLbr anusfr) iswK ivdvfn (?) lFbf jI dI. mfVI motI gurmiq dI jfxkfrI rwKx vflf iswK vI jfxdf hY ik iswK Drm jfq, goq mMnx df KMzn krdf hY. pr ieh vIr jI gurU goibMd isMG sfihb dy bKLsLy isMG lkb nUM qF isrPL aYs ilKvf ky buqf sfr lYNdy hn pr goq lFbf jLrUr gwj vwj ky nfl ilKdy hn. hux jy iek pMQk aKvfAux vfly mYgjLIn df aYzItr vI apxy nfm nfl lFbf goq rUpI gurmiq ivroDI pUC nUM ieMnI mfnqf idMdf hY qF AunHF dy iswKI ivc insLcy bfry hor kuwJ kihx dI loV nhIN hoxI cfhIdI. aKLbfr ivc qF sLfied ieh kih dyx ik pwqrkfr dI gLlqI nfl goq Cp geI. pr pfTk sMq ispfhI mYgjLIn df koeI aMk AuTf ky sMpfdkI pMny qy gurcrnjIq isMG lFbf nF dy dsqKLq vyK skdy hn. ienHF df iek ieqrfjL ieh hY ik gurbKLsL isMG gulsLn jI ny apxI pusqk ivc rihrfs dI vfjbqf nUM cunOqI idqI sI. sLfied Aus pusqk ivc gurbKLsL isMG jI ny cOpeI nUM bfxI ivc sLfml krn qy ikMqU kIqf hoxf hY. pr sLfied ieh nhIN jfxdy ik Drm pRcr kmytI ny ies svfl dy jvfb ivc iliKaf hY ik cOpeI gurU ikRq nhIN hY qy iksy kvI dI rcnf hY. vYsy vI ijLafdfqr iswK ivdvfn ies rcnf nUM gurU ikRq nhIN mMndy. ienHF df ieh vI mMnxf hY ik ienHF iqMnF nUM jy gRMQI isMG Qfp idqf igaf qF ieh iswK BfeIcfry vfsqy kflf idn hovygf. sLfied iswK BfeIcfry qoN AuunHF df mqlb AuunHF iswKF qoN hY jo gurdvfry mwQf vI tyk lYNdy hn, mjLfrF aqy mVHIaF qy mwQy vI rgVdy hn, rfDfsuafmI, inrMkfrIaF afid dy zyiraF qy vI jFdy hn. ieho ijhy iswKF nUM qF sLfied kflf idn lwgygf hI. pr jfigRq iswK qF KLusL hoxgy ik kuwJ iswK isDFqF dy jfxUM hux drbfr sfihb ivc gRMQI lwgxgy nhIN qF ienHF vflf iswK BfeIcfrf qF gMny dy KyqF nUM gurbfxI suxf ky pivwqr pqfsy iqafr krn nUM grmiq smJI bYTf hY (Xfd rhy jQydfr vydFqI ies pRfjYkt qy mohr lf afey hn) pr ieMny sflF qoN gurbfxI dI qoqf rtxI krdy ienHF df KLud df jIvn pivwqr (gurmiq anusfrI) nf ho sikaf. Dn hn ieho ijhy iswK qy Dn hY AuunHF dI iswKI. AuunHF vfsqy iswKF ivc jfigRqI ilafAux vflf koeI vI kMm kflf qF hovygf hI.
iswK vYsy qF dUsry Drm vfilaF vloN iswKI dy bfhrI Bys qy hoey hmly qy kfPLI ros krdy hn (kysF dy kql vflf vrqmfn mfmlf) jo jfiejL vI hY. pr apxy Gr ivc iswKF dy Bys ivc iswKI isDFqF df Gfx kr rhI lfbI qoN pUrI qrHF avysly hn. ies pfsy qoN vI jfgx dI jLrUrq hY qfik asI scmuc gurU nfnk anusfr dwsI iswKI rUpI jIvn jfc bxf skIey.
rivMMdr isMG
pMjOr (hirafxf)




.