.

iswK pMQ dy axgoly ivdvfn pRo[ gurmuK isMG jI

gurrn isMG ksyl

BFvyN sfry kfrj akfl purK hI krdf hY pr hryk kMm leI koeI ZMgqrIkf Auh afp hI pYdf krdf hY. iswK kOm jd kfI izwg cukI sI qF siqgurU jI ny BfeI gurmuK isMG jI qy apfr ikRpf kIqI qy afp jI mlfh bxf iswK kOm dI byVI GuMmx Gyry coN bcfAux leI sRI gurU isMG sBf lihr df cpU lf ky kyvl imtx qoN hI nhIN bcfieaf sgoN scfeI pRgt kr Pyr dUsrIaF kOmF dy mukfbly qy KVf hovx leI kr idwqf. BfeI gurmuK isMG jI df jIvn hI sRI gurU isMG sBf lihr df arMBk ieiqhfs hY. aj kl dI gurmq avsQf, pMjfbI dI AunqI qy ivdXf df vfDf hovx df syhrf afp jI dy isr hY pr iswK kOm ivc syvkF dI kIqI Bulf dyx dI vfdI ny ies syvk df nfAu qk vI Bulf Cizaf hY.

jnm-: BfeI jI horF df jnm apRYl sMn 1849 eI: ivwc grIb mfipaF dy Gr kpUrQlf ivKy hoieaf sI. ipqf df nFa BfeI bsfvf isMG sI, jo rfjf inhfl isMG jI kpUrQlf dy lFgrI sn. afp ipMz cODr, ijlHf gujrFvflf dy vsnIk sn.

ipClf hfl:- ipMz dI jmIn QoVI sI, ies leI BfeI bsfvf isMG jI pihly pihl rujgfr dy vs ho ky mhfrfjf yr isMG dy lFgrIaF ivwc BrqI ho gey. Aus smyN lfhOr ivc bVy qjrbykfr fnsfmy mOUd sn, ijnHF dy mfqihq bsfvf isMG ny fhI Kfxy bxfAux df qjrbf bVI imhnq nfl hfsl kIqf. ipCo 15 sqMbr sMn 1843 eI: jd mhfrfjf yr isMG df sMDfvflIey srdfrF dy hwQoN kql hoieaf qF kmFzYNt gMzf isMG dI shfieqf nfl, jo Aus mhfrfjy dy rsoeI fny df aPsr sI, bsfvf isMG dI jfx pCfx rfjf inhfl isMG dy nfl ho geI, qy afp ies iviD nfl kpUrQly phuMc gey. sMn 1852 eI: ivc inhfl isMG df dyhFq hox qoN pihlF bsfvf isMG horIN rfjf rxDIr isMG pfs qy Pyr kMvl ibkRm isMG dI syvf ivwc bdly gey.

ividaf pRfpqI qy gurmiq df Auqfh: kMvr ibkRm isMG jI bVy ivdvfn, kvI qy nfm-bfxI dy rsIey sn qy BfeI bsfvf isMG dy nfl AunFH df fs qOr qy snyh sI. ies leI AunFH dy puqr gurmuK isMG AunFH ny bcpn qoN hI pfilaf-poisaf, pVfHieaf qy pMQk syvf dy Xog bxfieaf. BfeI gurmuK isMG ny muwZlI ividaf kpUrQly hI pRfpq kIqI qy Pyr AucyrI ividaf leI gvrnmYNt kflj lfhOr jf dfl hoey. ijnFH idnF ivwc aMimRqsr isMG sBf kfiem hoeI, BfeI horI ajy kflj ivwc hI pVHdy sn ik kMvl sfihb dy nfl sBf dy iekwTF ivwc afAux-jfx hox krky afp gurmiq dy pRcfr dI cytk lwg geI, ijs krky pVHfeI flbn bI[ey ivwc hI aDvfty CwzI qy ies pfsy jut gey.

mfnisk JukfAu: BfeI gurmuK isMG dy inwjI kfgfq dyKx qoN pqf lgdf hY ik urU ivc AunFH icqRklf df bVf Ok sI . sMn 1873 eI: ivwc jd Auh ajy pVHdy hI sn qF mihkmf qflIm dy kfiem mukfm zfierYktr imstr sI[ prsn df icqR AunFH ny aijhf suMdr ipwicaf ik ijs dyKdy Auh aMgryj bVf hI u hoieaf. Ausny BfeI gurmuK isMG ieMjnIarI dI pVHfeI leI ruVkI Byjxf pRvfn kr ilaf, pr BfeI hurF kuJ hor hI mnUr sI, ies leI ruVkI nf gey. ies qrFH iek vfr Pyr AunFH kMvr ibkRm isMG vloN kfnUMn pVHn dI pRyrxf vI hoeI, pr ies pfisE vI kMz Bvf gey. sMsfrk kMmF vwloN ies qrFH Auprfmqf hox df kfrx BfeI sfihb dIaF Dfrimk rucIaF sn jo AunFH bfbf jwsf isMG afhlUvflIey dy jIvn-ieiqhfs ivwcoN pRfpq hoeIaF sn.

amlI progrfm: sMn 1876 eI: ivwc BfeI gurmuK isMG ny ieh dyK ky ik sRI gurU isMG sBf aMimRqsr dy pRcfr df kMm ipwCy pY irhf hY, qy gvFZI lok iswKF dy mukfbly qy kfPI awgy vD gey hn, pMQk AunwqI leI kuJ AusfrU pRogrfm AulIikaf qy kMvl ibkRm isMG jI pfs afpxy ies afy df aYlfn kr idwqf. ies aYlfn dy anusfr BfeI sfihb dy ieh afdrk ivcfr sn:-

1[ pMjfbI bolI ivwc kOmI sfihwq pYdf krnf.

2[ iswKF Dfrimk qy ivhfirk ividaf dyx df jqn krnf.

3[ anmq jF mnmq ivwc Gul iml rhy iswKF ies pfisE rok ky pwky iswK bxfAuxf .

4[ vyly dI aMgryI hkUmq df ibnF ivroD kIqy iswK Drm dy pRcfr dIaF jVHF pfqfl ivwc lfAuxf.

BfeI sfihb dy ieh ivcfr Aus smyN dI nIqI dy aYn anukUl sn, ikANuik ienHF gwlF qoN bypRvfh ho ky cwlx nfl iswKF nuksfn hI nuksfn sI qy lfB koeI nhIN sI. kMvl sfihb ny AunFH dy ies pRogrfm isry cfVHn leI hr qrFH qn, mn qy Dn krky shfieqf dyx df Brosf idwqf.

pihlf Xqn : hux BfeI gurmuK isMG df pihlf kMm sRI gurU sBf aMimRqsr muV nvyN isirEN surjIq krnf sI. ies kMm df muwZ qorn leI Auh BfeI krm isMG pujfrI nfl lYky srdfr Tfkr isMG sMDfvflIey imly. isMG sBf dI AuwnqI dy nfl hI bhuq or AunFH ny ies gwl qy idwqf ik aMimRqsr ivwc iswK lVikaF leI imn skUl mukfbly qy iek vwKrf mdrsf (skUl) jfrI kIqf jfvy qy dUjy ieh vI ikhf ik aMjmin pMjfb dI, jo ies smyN pMjfb XUnIvristI dI kl ivwc bdl rhI sI, hr mumkn qrIky nfl shfieqf kIqI jfvy. ieh shfieqf pMjfbI bolI AunqI dyx leI sI. zfktr lfietnr, jo aMjmin pMjfb df moZI sI, ies smyN BfeI gurmuK isMG df imqR bx igaf. qIjy ies kMm ivwc AunFH nfl BfeI afieaf isMG jI juV gey. AuproN sR: Tfkur isMG sMDfvflIey ny shfieqf df Brosf idwqf. sMn 1876 ivwc pMjfb XUnIvristI ErIaYNtl kflj KuuilHaf qy ies qoN agly sfl sMn 1877 ivwc ienFH iqMnF sjxf dy jqn nfl ErIaYNtl kflj ivwc pMjfbI bolI pVHfeI jfxI mnUr ho geI.

kflj dI srvs: pMjfbI mnjUr hox sfr hI BfeI gurmuK isMG pMjfb XUnIvristI ErIaYNtl kflj ivwc pRoPYsr lwg gey. ies mulfjmq ivwc ho ky Auh sMn 1885 qk bI[ E[ aYl[ dy ividafrQIaF ihsfb, ieiqhfs qy iPlfsPI dI pVHfeI krvFdy rhy. ies smyN dy drimafn sMn 1881 ivwc pRfeIvyt qOr qy AuNnHF ny ihsfb dy afnr stYNzrz df PfeInl iemiqhfn pfs kIqf.

sMn 1885 qoN BfeI gurmuK isMG dI bdlI gvrnmYNt kflj ivwc ho geI, ijwQy afp jUnIar klfsF ihsfb qy ieiqhfs pVHfAuxdy rhy. Aus vyly ividaf df eynf pRcfr nf hox krky pMjfbI df koeI aiDafpk imlxf bVf aOKf sI, ies leI sMn 1888 ivwc afp Pyr ErIaYNtl kflj ivwc bdly gey. pMjfbI klfsF ivwc Aus smyN aj klH dI qrFH ikwsy khfxIaF nhIN, sgoN vydFq afid iviaF dy bVy gUVH gRMQ pVHny pYNdy sn qy sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb dy arQF qoN ividafrQIaF df jfxU hoxf lfmI sI, ies leI ErIaYNtl kflj ivwc roj bkfiedf sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb df pRkf huMdf sI qy gurmiq iPlfsPI Auqy lYkcr idwqy jFdy sn.

pMjfbI pqRkfrI: gurmuK isMG jI ny pMjfbI pqRkfrI ivwc vI pihl kIqI qy gurmuKI abfr (1880) ividafrk pMjfb (1880) rsflf suDfrk aqy flsf gt (1886) pRkfiq krny afrMBy. ieMnFH qoN ibnF pMjvF iek hor pqR flsf aKbfr sMn 1885) ivwc isMG sBf lfhOr vloN kwiZaf. ieh pMjy pqR pMjfbI bolI qy sfihq dy vfDy leI BfeI sfihb dy moilk jqnF dy nqIjy sn.

igRhsQI jIvn: sMn 1880 qoN 1888 eI: dy drimafn smyN ivwc BfeI gurmuK isMG dIaF do fdIaF hoeIaF. pihlI fdI isMG sBf qy inXmF muqfibk fq pfq dy iKlfP iek pfsy rwK ky ipMz dodpur ivwc qRKfx isMGF dy Gr hoeI. ipwCoN QoVf icr hI acfxk Aus supqnI df idhFq hox qy dUjI fdI afp ny ipMz jMzU ky muqisl mfeIsrKfnf (biTMzy dy nyVy) kIqI.

sRI gurU grMQ sfihb df rIdkotI tIkf: ies smyN drbfr PrIdkot vloN sRI gurU grMQ sfihb df tIkf iqafr krvfey jfx df PYslf hoieaf. bhuq sfry ivdvfn qy guxI-igafnI ies kMm leI iekwTy kIqy gey. BfeI gurmuK isMG qy AunFH dy iek do sfQI vI iekwT ivwc gey. AunFH ivdvfnF qy igafnIaF dy, ijnFH ivc bfbf sumyr isMG mhMq ptnf sfihb vI sn, snfqnI ZMg dy arQ suxky BfeI gurmuK isMG ny rfjf ibkRm isMG sfP kih idwqf ik afp dy guxI igafnI qy tIkfkfr eynI smJ nhIN rKdy jo sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb dy shI arQ kr skx, ikAuNik ienFH ivwc Koj BrI ividaf, buwDI qy gurmq iPlfsPI dI pux-Cfx krn dy Kfs Gfty hn. ies krky tIkf krn dy kdficq jog nhIN hn. ieh KrI KrI nukqf cInI suxky igafnI bdn isMG dy qF qn mn awg lwg geI qy Ausny bydI Kym isMG pfs ikfieq kr idwqI . rfjf ibkRm isMG horI cUMik bydI sfihb nfl awCI fsI akIdq rKdy sn, ies leI Auh BfeI gurmuK isMG ies uB kfrj ivwc rok pfAux vfly smJ ky AunFH qy nfrf ho gey.

BfeI gurmuK isMG Auqy dUn: ies qoN ipwCoN BfeI gurmuK isMG ivruwD mOky dI Bfl hox lwgI qF jo Aus qoN ies ivroD df, jo DIro DIry mlIh dI awg vFgU dohF iDrF dy ivckfr DuKdf jf irhf sI, bdlf ilaf jfvy. acfxk ies qoN do sfl ipwCoN sMn 1887 ivwc srdfr Tfkur isMG sMDfvflIey, jo ivlfieqoN muV ky pFzIcrI phuMc cuwky sn, clfxf kr gey qy eyDr isMG sBf dy vwzy moZI kMvl ibkRm isMG kpUrQlf, df idhFq vI ho igaf. ies qoN ibnF isMG sBf lfhOr dy muKIaF ivwc kuJ Puwt vI af peI. ies qrFH afpxf pwK kmor hox qy BfeI gurmuK isMG iekwly hI ies mYdfn ivwc rih gey. aMimRqsrI DVy ny ieh smF TIk smiJaf qy BfeI gurmuK isMG dy ivruwD iek ieiqhfr Cfp ky vMizaf igaf, ijs ivwc AunFH Auqy dUx lfey gey sn:-

    1. BfeI sfihb gur-aM (sfihbfidaF) df snmfn nhIN krdy.
    2. jnm sfKI bflf ivwc sumyl prbq JUTI klpnf mMndy.
    3. bicqR nftk gurbfxI nhIN mMndy.
    4. 26, 27, PrvrI 1887 isMG sBf lfhOr dy jlsy ivwc 24 avqfrF dIaF qsvIrF lgf ky AuNnFH df KMzn ikAUN kIqf igaf ?
    5. iek ihMdUEN muslmfn hoey hwjx dIvfn vloN isMG sfijaf igaf.
    6. BfeI sfihb ny Kflsf abfr dy iek prcy ivwc iliKaf ik gurduafiraF ivc sqr-pUjf df irvfj ihMdUaF dI dyKf dyKI urU hoieaf hY, jo gurmq qoN Ault hY.
    7. ijqnf icr koeI isMG qfby nf bYTf hovy Auqnf icr ieh sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb gurU nhIN mMndy.

PrIdkot ivwc iekwT: sB qoN pihlF ienFH dUxF qy ivcfr krn dI pRyrxf sRI gurU isMG sBf PrIdkot hoeI. ies mOky qy igafnI bcn isMG (PrId kotI) bfbf Kym isMG bydI, bfvf inhfl isMG lyKk urId flsf qy AunFH dy Brf bfvf srmuK isMG ny bVI srgrmI nfl ies kMm ivwc ihwsf ilaf. iek Aucycf iekwT PrIdkot kIqf, ijs ivwc fml hox leI lfhOr aqy aMimRqsr dy sB muKIey afpxy afp rIdkot phuMc gey. jd iekqRqf hoeI qF PYslf kIqf igaf ik BfeI gurmuK isMG ijqnf icr afpxy ipwCy dwsy gunfh nf bfvfvy Auqnf icr Aus flsf pMQ qoN alwg rwiKaf jfvy. ies PYsly Auqy rfjf sfihb rIdkot qoN lY ky vwzy-vwzy sMqF mhMqF afid sB ny dsqKq kr idwqy qy ipwCy ieh vwzI sBf dI mnjUrI vfsqy aMimRqsr ByjI geI.

BfeI gurmuK isMG df akfl qKqoN Cyikaf jfxf: vwzI sBf arQfq-Kflsf dIvfn, aMimRqsr ivwc vI sB iek DVy dy hI afdmI sn, ies leI bhu-sMmqI nfl PrId kot df PYslf hI awKr aKwr shI rwiKaf igaf.

supn nftk df mukwdmf: igafnI idwq isMG jI ies smyN Kflsf abfr dy aYzItr sn. AuNnHf ny ies pqR ivwc BfeI gurmuK isMG jI dI Cyk iCkfeI bfry aMimRqsr DVy dI aslIaq afpxy pfTkF KolH ky dwsI. rId kot dy iekwT qoN lY ky aMimRqsr dy Ysly qk BfeI gurmuK isMG dy akfl qKqoN frj kIqy jfx df sfrf ikwsf supn nftk dy rUp ivwc hfs-rsI ZMg nfl klmbMd krky Cfipaf. ies nftk ivwc rfjf ibkRm isMG, bfbf Kym isMG bydI, igafnI JMzf isMG, igafnI sMq isMG bfbf sumyl isMG mhMq ptnf , bfbf Audy isMG bydI (kpUrQlf) afid moZIaF bfry bVI knukqfcInI kIqI qy sB df mOjU Auzfieaf sI. ies nftk dy pRkfq hox qy bfbf Audy isMG bydI ny ies ivwc afpxf apmfn smiJaf, ijs krky lfhOr adflq df bUhf jf KVkfieaf. hwqk iewq df mukwdmf clx qy dohF iDrF dy gvfh Bugqy. aMq ivwc PYslf hox qy igafnI idwq isMG adflq vloN 51 rupey jurmfnf hoieaf. ipwCoN AuprlI adflq ivwc apIl krn qy igafnI jI sfP brI ho gey qy ieh jurmfnf vI mfP ho igaf.

Kflsf kflj ikvyN bixaf ?

afrMBk jqn: iswK ividafk lihr, ijvyN ik ipwCy dwisaf igaf hY, ik sMn 1880 ivwc hI cwl peI sI qy BfeI gurmuK isMG ny Kflsf kflj bxfx leI pRcfr krnf urU kr idwqf sI. isMG sBf ivwc ies bfry iek pRsqfv vI rwiKaf qy gurmuKI aKbfr ivwc ies ivy qy lyK vI ilKy gey. ies qoN ipCoN sMn 1883 eI: lflf sMq rfm dI koTI aMimRqsr iswKF df iek iekwT hoieaf ijs ivwc pMQk muKIaF awgy BfeI gurmuK isMG ny Kflsf kflj kfiem krn leI afpxy ivcfr py kIqy. sfiraF ny ieqPfk rfie nfl ies iKafl dI pRoVqf kIqI qy gurmqf pfs krky iek kmytI inXq hoeI ijs ivwc bfbf Kym isMG bydI qy cfr-pMj hor swjx ley gey.

iswK reIsF dI idlI iewCf: hux isMG sBf lfhOr dy moZIaF df Auqfh hor vI viDaf . BfeI gurmuK isMG jI gvrnmYNt qoN ies kfrj leI shfieqf mMgx lwgy. iswK irafsqF ivc cMdf iekwTf krn leI AunFH ny keI gyVy lgfey, pr kuJ inrfsqf hI hoeI. mhfrfjf rId kot ny ikhf, jy myry nfm qy kflj bxfE qF shfieqf iml skdI hY, iesy qrFH keI hor rfjy mhfrfjy qy reIsF ny iewCf pRgt kIqI. BfeI gurmuK isMG ny sB ieho Auqr idwqf ik kflj df sFJf nfm flsf kflj hI rhygf qy cNMdf vI quhf dyxf pvygf.

Kflsf kflj ikwQy bxy: keI lwK rupey jmF hox qy ivcfr iCVI ik flsf kflj ikwQy bxy, lfhOr jF aMimRqsr ? Kflsf dIvfn lfhOr dy moZIaF dI rfie lfhOr dy hwk ivc sI qy gvrnmYNt vI cfhuMdI sI ik ieh kflj lfhOr hI bxfieaf jfvy. QF dI qjvI vI gvrnmYNt kflj qy zI[ ey[ vI[ skUl dy nyVy qyVy hI hox lwgI. ieh dyK ky afrIaF smfjIaF ipwsU pey. AunHF ny soicaf ik jy flsf kflj lfhOr ivwc hI bx igaf qF AunFH dy zI[ey[vI[ kflj dI skIm qF DrI-DrfeI hI rih jfvygI ikAuNik eynf cMdf, iekwTf krn dI AunFH ivwc qfkq nhIN sI.

flsf kflj dI sQfpnf: ies qoN ipwCoN Pyr aMimRqsr bfry vI svfl pYdf hoieaf ik kflj ikwQy bxfieaf jfvy. gvrnmYNt qF rylvy styn dy nfl hI rfm bfg dI mIn ies uB kfrj leI iswKF dyxI cfhuMdI sI, pr kuJ afgUaF ny soicaf ik jykr ihr dy nyVy kflj bx igaf qF ividafrQIaF dy afcrx Auqy ihrI jIvn df BYVf asr pvygf, ies leI aMimRqsr qoN pwCm-Auqr 4 mIl dy Pfsly qy lfhOr jfx vflI sVk dy swjy hwQ ipMz kot sYd mihmUd dy imIdfrF qoN 100 eykV mIn KrIdI, ijwQy 5 mfrc, sMn 1892 eI: sr jym lfiel lft sfihb pMjfb dy hwQIN flsf kflj dI nINh rwKI geI.

dIvfn lfhOr dI kfmXfbI: BfeI gurmuK isMG akfl qKq qoN Cykx df jo nftk ricaf igaf Auh aMimRqsr DVy df aMqlf vfr sI, pr ies ivwc asPlqf hI hoeI. flsf kflj bxn ipwCoN dIvfn lfhOr dI kfmXfbI dy kfrn Aus dy pRcfr afid dy kMmF ivwc hor vI qrwkI hoeI qy BfeI gurmuK isMG dI uhrq vDx lwgI.

pujfrIaF df zr: BfeI gurmuK isMG dy nfl bfbf Kym isMG jI df jo vKryvF sI qF Auh kyvl iswDFqk sI, hor koeI buinafdI ivroDqf nhI sI, pr keI pujfrI qy DrmsflIey BfeI, ijnHF dy hwQF ivwc gurdvfiraF dIaF jfiedfdF sn, BfeI gurmuK isMG dy suDfrk kMmF qoN buinafdI qOr qy ivruwDI sn. AuNnHF zr sI ik ikqy ies suDfr ivwc AunFH dIaF jfiedfdF hI nf Kuws jfx, iesy leI Auh BfeI sfihb dy pRcfr kYrI awK nfl dyKdy sn. so, ieh ivroDqf vDdI hI clI geI.

do mihjr nfmy: sMn 1890 ivwc jd Kflsf kflj leI cMdf iekwTf kIqf jf irhf sI kuJ lokF ny ijnFH ivwc pujfrI sn, iek mihjr nfmf ies Bfv df iqafr kIqf ik BfeI gurmuK isMG aqy igafnI idwq isMG qnKfhIey hn, ies leI ienFH cMdf nf idwqf jfvy, pr jd ies df asr iswK jnqf Auqy kuJ nf hoieaf qy Kflsf kflj bx hI igaf qF 150 lokF dy dsqKqF hyT iek hor dUjf mihjr nfmf iliKaf igaf. Aus df Bfv vI ieho sI ik BfeI gurmuK isMG cHMik iswKIEN frj hY, ies leI ies kflj kONsl df mYNbr nf bxfieaf jfvy.

flsf pRYs qy abfr: BfeI gurmuK isMG jI afpxI Dun dy pwky sn ies leI ienHF kfgjI hmilaF df AunFH dy idl Auqy koeI vI asr nf ipaf. flsf kflj dI sQfpnf qoN Pfirg huMidaF hI AunFH ny flsf pRYs qy Kflsf aKbfr df pRbMD nvyN isirEN TIk kIqf. Kflsf pRYs leI nvF tfeIp KrIidaf aqy Kflsf aKbfr jo sMn 1887 ivwc supn nftk dy mukwdmy ivwc AulJx kr ky kuJ icr ipwCoN bMd ho igaf sI, sMn 1893 eI: qoN Pyr nvyN isry cflU kIqf igaf.

BfeI gurmuK isMG df akfl clfxf: srdfr gurmuK isMG jI eynI vwzI Aumr dy nhIN sn, flsf kflj dI jwdo-jihd dy idnF ivwc kmjor ho gey . ies qoN QoVf ku icr ipwCoN AunFH kuJ idl dI qklIP rihx lwg peI. ies dOrfn ivwc kfPI krjy df Bfr vI isr qy cVH igaf. afpxI ishq TIk krn leI AunFH ny pMQk kMmF qoN iek sfl dI CuwtI vI leI, pr ies df koeI fs lfB nf hoieaf.

jd iswK kOm jrf DOx cukx jogI hoeI qF mOq vI ies iswK Drm dy sfry ivvfsI, ihqYI qy kOm dy qkVy cOkIdfr, pMjfbI jbfn dy mddgfr, dy cfhvfn dI Aupmf qy syvf nf shfr skI. aMq 24nvMbr, sMn 1898 eI: , jd Auh mhfrfxf DOx pur qoN cMdf lYx vfsqy kMzy Gft (pitaflf) gey sn, qF sRI ngr dy mukfm qy idl dI hrkq bMd ho jfx kr ky AuNnHF df dyhFq ho igaf.

gux, krm qy suBfAu: BfeI gurmuK isMG dI ieh by-vkq mOq flsf dIvfn lfhOr leI asih swt qy Kflsf kflj leI iek nf pUrf hox vflf Gftf sI. BfeI sfihb swc muwc hI iswKF dy iek vwzy afgU qy pMQk BlfeI leI AuwcIaF skImF dy mflk sn. jy AunFH iswKF dy sr swXd aihmd ikhf jfvy qF koeI aXog jF ax-PbdI Aupmf nhIN hY. Bgq lCmx isMG jI, ijnHF ny AunFH awKIN dyiKaf sI, pMQk iKdmqF bfry AunFH dI pRsMsf krdy hoey mfrc sMn 1941 dy rsflf pMj diraf (lfhOr) ivwc ieM ilKdy hn:-

iswK rjvfiVaF dI Audfrqf qF mMnI pRmMnI khfvq hY qy Auh afpxy jqnF nfl iswKI pRcfr leI idl KolHky dfn dyNdy sn, pr iksy kI pqf sI ik iswKF muV jfgqR krn df syhrf iek grIb iswK jwt dy isr bMnHIvygf. myrI murfd BfeI gurmuK isMG qoN hY, ijnFH iswKI syvf dI Auh lgn sI ik fied hI iksy hovygI. afp ny kOm Aucf krn df Auprflf kIqf, pr afp kdI Aucy hox df supnf vI nhIN sI ilaf. 70-80 rupY mhInf qnKfh imldI sI[[[. bwcI bwcf koeI nhIN sI, kyvl iek isMGxI hI sI. rotI kwpVy qoN jo bcy iswK nOjvfnF dI pVHeI ivwc lgdf sI.

not: pRo: gurmuK isMG jI df ieh sMKyp jIvn, siqkfr sihq " iswK imnrI kflj luiDafxf, vwloN ilKI ikqfb, isMG sBf lihr" ivwcoN ilaf igaf hY. bynqI hY ik ivsQfr nfl jfxkfrI lYx leI ieh ikqfb pVHo jI.




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