.

bfbf bMdf isMG bhfdr - bMdeI, ik qwq Kflsf?

pRo: ieMdr isMG Gwgf

Kflsf rfj dy pihly bfdfh sUrbIr, iswK POjF dy mhfn jrnYl, bfbf bMdf isMG jI bhfdr ny, sImq ijhy smyN ivwc, mfmUlI sfDnf nfl, ibKVy hflfq ivwc, Bfrq dI kqIflI jflm mugl hkUmq dIaF jVF ihlf ky rwK idwqIaF sn. ieh sMsfr dI gOrv vflI, jFbfj lokF dI, vicwqr gfQf hY. iewk mfmUlI ijhy gumnfm sfDU ny, dsm ipqf hjUr df QfpVf lY ky, aMimRq Ckky, jo bhfdrI dy mfxmwqy kfrnfmy kr ivKfey, Auh sMsfr ivwc ivrly mnuwKF dy ihwsy hI afAuNdy hn. zfktr gokl cMd nfrMg ilKdf hY - ijs sMpUrx mnuwK dI rUp ryKf, gurU nfnk sfihb ny iqafr kIqI. ijsdI GfVq gurU goibMd isMG jI ny GVI. Auh sMpUrx mnuwK bMdf isMG hI sI. ieh iMdgI df nftk, BfvyN gurU goibMd isMG jI ny hI iliKaf, pr ies sMsfr mMc qy, slqf sihq, bMdf isMG ny Kyizaf.`` bfbf jI aMqm smyN qwk, gurU hukmF qy, pUrI isdk idlI nfl, pihrf idMdy rhy. jo syvf AuhnF siqgurU jI ny sONpI sI, Aus lwK musIbqF Jwlky, sIs qlI qy rwKky lVidaF, aKIr bMd bMd ktvf ky, sUrbIrqf dIaF anyk mMijlF AuqFh cVH gey.

bfbf jI bfry bhuq lyKkF ny klm clfeI hY. gYr iswKF dy qF, pwKpfq dI aYnk lwgI hoeI sI hI, pr iswK ieiqhfskfrF ny BI, dysI bdyI gYriswKF dy glq prBfv hI kbUilaf. iesy leI axigxq ielfm bfbf jI qy Qop idwqy gey. ijs siqkfr dy, bfbf jI hwkdfr sn, sfzy ieiqhfskfr AuhnF , bxdf Xog siqkfr nF dy sky. bfbf bMdf isMG jI bfry, ijMnIaF ikqfbF iml skdIaF sn, lyKk ny AuhnF sfrIaF gurU isDFqF dy pirpyK ivwc rwKky, ivcfrn df jqn kIqf hY. jo kuJ bfbf jI bfry, smJ ivwc af sikaf hY, Auh invykly nrIey qoN, pfTkF nfl sFJf krn df ieh iewk jqn hY.

bfbf jI dy muZly jIvn bfry, aqy gurU goibMd isMG jI nfl imlfp bfry, AunI iewkI dy Prk nfl, lwgBwg sfry lyKk iewko ijhf ilKdy hn. Aus dIaF fndfr ijwqF, XuwD dy anoKy dfa pyc, Gwt igxqI iswKF nfl, QoVy sfDnf nfl, vwzI qoN vwzI rfjsI kqI , rjrI krn dy smrwQ hoxf. awT sfl qwk pMjfb ivwc lgfqfr, ijwq dy JMzy JulfAuNdy jfxf, mnuwKqf dy doKIaF cuxky krfrIaF sjfvF dyxIaF, afid bfry BI ieiqhfskfrF ivwc koeI gMBIr mwqByd nhIN hn.

bfbf jI dI suwcI sIaq dfgdfr krn vfsqy, jo kmIny ieljfm lfey gey hn, AuhnF ivwc iafdf AuhI hn, ijnHF df pRcfr smyN dI mugl hkUmq vwloN or or nfl kr idwqf igaf. jdoN ik bMdf isMG dI iewk BI ilKq aijhI nhIN imldI ijs qoN iksy do dI putI huMdI hovy. dr asl bfbf jI dIaF ijwqF qoN, srkfr burI qrHf bOKlf geI sI. bfdfh bhfdr fh, Kud bMdf isMG ivruwD POjF dI ingrfnI krdf irhf. ieQoN dy ivgVy hflfq vyKky, iswKF dI cVHq mihsUs krky, Aus zobU pY rhy sn. iesy smyN lhor ivwc, sIaf qy suMnI muslmfnf dy Psfd BVk pey. bhfdr fh ieMnf bycYn hoieaf, ik Ausny hfsohIxy hukm dyxy urU kr idwqy. ijvyN - sfry ihr lhOr dy kuwqy mfr idE. sfry ikqoN mMgiqaF qy PkIrF PVky jylHF ivwc bMd kr idE, jF kql kr idE.`` ies pfglpx dI hflq ivwc hI Auh 27 nvMbr 1712 lhOr ivKy mr igaf.

qq pRfpqI vfsqy, bhfdr fh dy cfry puqrF ivwc, KUb qlvfr cwlI. aMq iqMn BrfvF kql krky jhFdfrKfn qq qy bYTf. pr bhuq CyqI ies mfrky, PruwKsIar bfdfh bx bYTf, jo 1719 qwk jIvq irhf. PruKsIar ny, iswKF qm krn vfsqy, sfrI srkfrI kqI Jok idwqI. idwlI qoN lY ky mulqfn qwk dIaF sfrIaF POjF , bfbf bMdf isMG , ijAuNdf jF murdf PV ilafAux dy hukm cfVH idwqy. iehnF sfrIaF sMXukq sYnfvF dI, kul igxqI iewk lwK qoN kuJ iafdf hI sI. awT mhIny dy lMmy smyN qwk, ieh POj gurdfs nMgl dI gVI duafly, ijQoN bfbf jI sq mukfblf kr rhy sn, Gyrf pfeI bYTIaF rhIaF. iehnF BUqry ispfhIaF ny afly duafly ipMzF pMjfh pMjfh mIl qwk AujfV idwqf. byumfr luwt mfr kIqI geI, PslF GoiVaF KwcrF Kvf idwqIaF. bhU bytIaF dIaF iewjqF ruldIaF rhIaF. iPr BI ieny vwzy lfAu lkr vfsqy, sfrIaF shUlqF pRdfn krvfxIaF, sOKf kMm nhIN sI. ies smyN ivckfr, afly duafly gMdgI PYl geI. ibmfrI nfl lwgy POjI DVf DV mrn. POjI jrnYl hflfq dI gMBIrqf vyKky, idl Cwz bYTy. iewDr bfbf bMdf isMG sI ik kuJ BI nF huMidaF, sIs qlI qy rwK ky, byKOP lV irhf sI. abdusmwd KF ny, sfrIaF irpotF PruwKIar idwlI ByjIaF. bfdfh q pVHky bhuq icMqfqur hoieaf. Ausny mihsUs kr ilaf ik ies qrHF iswDI twkr ivwc, asIN iswKF qy pUrI ijwq hfsl nhIN kr skFgy.

mfqf suMdrI jI idwlI ivwc rih rhy sn. mYkfl aqy Kjfn isMG ilKdy hn, ik PruwKsIar ny mfqf jI qwk phuMc kIqI, qy ikhf, bMdf isMG ny gurU Gr df nuksfn krn vfly, sfry lokF sjf dy idwqI hY. Auh hux hor hmly krny bMd kr dyvy.`` Aus vkq mfqf jI , hkUmq vwloN gujfrf Bwqf iml irhf sI. jF ieAuN kho mfqf jI sKq srkfrI ingrfnI ivwc sn. bfhr dI sfrI TIk Kbr AuhnF qwk nhIN phuMcdI sI. ikAuNik rihMdI sfrI Aumr mfqf jI idwlI qoN ikDry bfhr nhIN jfx idwqf igaf. kuJ ku iswKF BI bfdfh ny nfl sihmq kr ilaf. iehnF sfiraF dy jor pfAux qy mfqf jI ny bfbf bMdf isMG vwl, jMg bMdI dI icwTI ilK idwqI. pr hflfq dI njfkq smJidaF, bfbf jI ny jMgbMdI qoN nFh kr idwqI. ikAuNik Auh ies iewk srkfrI sfij smJdy sn. mfqf suMdrI jI ny, pqf lwgx qy muV iewk pwqr (hkUmq dy dbfE kfrn) ilK ky iswKF bMdf isMG nfloN sbMD qoV lYx leI ikhf. ieh BI sMBv hY ik ieh Kq sfry jfhlI hI hox, mfqf jI df nfm vrqky srkfr ny ilKy hox. kuJ vI hovy, PruwKsIar mfqf jI rfhIN iswKF ivwc pfV pfAux ivwc kfmXfb ho igaf. srkfr pwKI iswKF ny, bMdf isMG qy hyT ilKy ielfm lfey, qy mfqf jI ny hukmnfmf jfrI kr idwqf. ieljfm ieh sn -

A:1[ bMdf isMG ny, gurU goibMd isMG jI dy Purmfnf ivruwD, apxf mq clfieaf hY.

2[ Ausny ivafh krvfky gurU jI dy jqI sqI rihx dy hukm dI AulMGxf kIqI hY.

3[ Ausny KMzy dI pfhul dI QfvyN crn pfhul urU kr idwqI hY.

4[ Ausny vfihgurU jI kI Piqh dI QF, Piqh drn afKxf urU krvf idwqf hY.

5[ Ausny gurU ky iswKF , bMdeI iswK kihxf urU kr idwqf hY.

6[ Ausny fhI ilbfs, aqy TfT nfl rihxf urU kr idwqf hY.

7[ Auh hMkfrI ho igaf hY, qy iswKF GtIaf smJdf hY.

iehnF Aupr vrixq doF zf: gMzf isMG ny pRvfn nhIN kIqf. ieh kyvl srkfrI pRfpygMzf sI. ies hukmnfmy dI afV hyT aOKy vyly bMdf isMG nfloN qoV ivCoVf krn vfly iswKF, qy PruwsIar bhuq pRsMn hoieaf. AuhnF qohPy qy jfgIrF idwqIaF, drbfr sfihb aMimRqsr df kbf dy idwqf, pMj sO iswK srkfrI POj ivwc nOkr rwK ilaf. sfl df 5000 ruipaf lMgr`` leI, srkfr ny hor dyxf pRvfn kIqf. dOlq rfey, Kfn isMG qy zfktr gMzf isMG muqfbk imlvrqxIey iswKF nfl srkfr ny ieh rqF qYh kIqIaF -

a : 1[ Kflsf, srkfr dy ielfikaF aqy kMmF ivwc dl nhIN dyvygf.

2[ qwq Kflsf, bMdf isMG dI koeI shfieqf nhIN krygf.

3[ loV pYx qy qwq Kflsf, srkfr dI POjI shfieqf krygf.

4[ pMjfb dy ihMdUaF qy srkfr vwloN koeI ulm qy ainaf nhIN kIqf jfvygf.

hux pfTk jn AuWpr idwqIaF rqF gOr nfl pVHn. spwt ho jfvygf ik bMdf isMG qy lgfey do, bybuinafd aqy glq sn. sgoN ijs qwq Kflsf pRcfiraf igaf hY, gdfrI Ausny kIqI hY. srkfrI srpRsqI ivwc AuhI igaf hY. jgIrF qy ienfm Ausny ley hn. bMdf isMG qF bwbr yrF vFg mYdfn ivwc BbkF mfr irhf sI. hux iewk iewk ieljfm df nMbrvfr juafb-

A: 1[ dsm pfqfh jF iksy gurivakqI ny, iksy iswK ivafh krvfx qoN kdy nhIN roikaf. iswKI igRsq pRDfn Drm hY. Kud gurU ivakqI fdI udf sn.

2[ bMdf isMG ny gurU hukmF qoN ivruwD koeI nvF Drm nhIN clfieaf. ies dI putI leI Aus vwloN iqafr mohrF qy iswky vyKy jf skdy hn.

3[ Ausny crn pfhul kdI BI nhIN cflU kIqI. Piqh drn kihx df koeI sbUq nhIN hY.

4[ Ausny kdI BI iksy iswK bMdeI iswK nhIN ikhf. iesdf koeI sbUq nhIN hY.

5[ fhI ilbfs jF TfT qoN siqgurU jI ny kdI iksy iswK nhIN roikaf.

6[ Ausny hMkfr ivwc kdI iksy iswK , mMdf bcn nhIN boilaf. ieh quhmqF ibnF sbUqF qoN hI lfeIaF geIaF hn. hux aglf ihwsf qwq Kflsy vflf ivcfrIey -

a : 1[ Kflsf bfdfh dy ielfikaF, qy kMm ivwc ikAuN dKl nhIN dyvygf ? jdoN ik hfkm bdyI sn. flm sn, kI imslF vkq hkUmq qoN dy Koh ky, iswK rfj kfiem nhIN kIqf ?

2[ qwq Kflsy dI nyk nfmI vl iDafn mfro. Gor musIbqF ivwc iGry, awT mhIinaF qoN lV rhy iswK BrfvF dI, qwq Kflsf mdd nhIN krygf. aYzf hnyr ?

3[ sgoN loV pYx qy aKOqI qwq Kflsf srkfr dI mdd krygf. BrfvF mrvfx leI ?

4[ bdly ivwc 5000 sflfnf, drbfr sfihb df kbjf, 500 afdmI POj ivwc BrqI krn df ienfm imilaf, ies qwq Kflsy .

ies afpsI Puwt nfl, Kflsf pMQ df, aqy smuwcy dy df bhuq nuksfn hoieaf. bfbf jI kol iswKF dI igxqI bhuq Gt geI. aslf bfrUd muwkx nyVy puwj igaf, pr ihMmq nhIN hfrI, koeI gYrqhIx smJOqf nF kIqf.

bfhr rih gey iswKF (gurdfs nMgl dI gVHI qoN) ny, PruwKsIaq , ivvfs duafivaf ik asIN, bMdf isMG dI shfieqf qF kI krnI sI, sgoN vs lwgy, gVHI ivwc iGry isKF , hOslfhIx krn df pUrf jqn krFgy. iesy qrHF kIqf igaf, imwQy pRogrfm muqfbk, bfbf ibnod isMG, bfbf kfhn isMG ny, bfbf bMdf isMG ivruwD apmfn jnk bd vrqxy urU kr idwqy. bMdf isMG jI ny bhuq smJfieaf, pr Auh bfj nf afey. nObq ieMnI vD geI ik AuhnF bMdf isMG mfrn vfsqy, qlvfrF DUh leIaF. aKIr srkfrI ih Auqy, pMj sO sfQIaF df lkr lY ky, bfbf bonod isMG, bfhr inkl gey. srkfrI POj vwloN igxI imwQI sfij qihq, AuhnF shI slfmq lMG jfx idwqf igaf.

iswKF ivwc pfV pY jfx qoN, PruwKsIaq aqI pRsMn hoieaf. Ausny lfhOr dy sUbydfr abdul smuwdfn , nvyN isirAuN jordfr hmlf krn df hukm kIqf. nfl hI Aus dI shfieqf vfsqy, kmIr df sUbydfr jbrdsq Kfn, vwzI POj smyq puwj igaf. zf: gMzf isMG muqfbk pMjfb dy jfgIrdfrF aqy POjdfrF BI, afpxIaF rfKvIaF POjF, bMdf isMG ivruwD cfVHn vfsqy ilK Byijaf. ies qrHF gujrfq df sUbydfr imrf aihmdKfn, amInfbfad df POjdfr ierfdq Kfn, aOrMgbfad qy psrUr dy nUr mhuMmdKfn, pwtI qy klfnOr afid dy. ktoc dy rfjf BIm isMG, jsrOqf dy rfjf hMsdyv ny BI, afpxIaF ssqrbwD sYnfvF , lfhorI sYnf dy nfl imlf ilaf. sFJI ihMdU muslmfnF dI imlvIN POj ny, dubfrf bMdf isMG qy ordfr hmly kIqy.

bMdf isMG bhfdr nfl, kot imrjfjfn ivKy hoeI jbrdsq lVfeI df hfl, mOky df gvfh, sIarAul muKqfrIn df krqf ilKdf hY - bMdf mYdfn ivwc sB hYrfn kridaF zitaf Kloqf sI. Auh pihlI muwT ByV ivwc ieMnI bhfdrI nfl liVaf ik fhI POjF hfr Kfky dOVn hI vflIaF sn ik bMdy ipwCy htxf pY igaf.`` bfbf jI morcf dr morcf ipwCy htdy hoey, gurdfs nMgl dI gVHI ivwc puwj gey. smkflI lyKk KfI Kfn ilKdf hY ik -kfPr (iswK) ieMny iBafnk ZMg nfl lVy, ik ieslfmI sYnf iblkul hfr dy nyVy pucf idwqf. bfr bfr AuhnF ies isry dI dlyrI df ivKfvf kIqf.`` sfhmxy mwQy lVn dI QfvyN, (burI qrHF mfr Kfx qoN bfad) fhI POjF ny nfkybMdI df shfrf ilaf. rsd pfxI, Gfh pwTf, afAux dIaF sfrIaF lfeInf kwt idwqIaF. aMdroN sB kuJ qm huMdf igaf. ieQoN qwk drdnfk siQqI ho geI ik AuhnF afpxy GoVy BI mfr ky Kf ley. awgoN mfs pkfAux leI lwkVI BI nhIN sI. kwcf mfs Kfky bhuqy iswK ibmfr ho gey. ies aiqaMq musIbq ivwc BI awT mhIny qwk pUry hOsly nfl mukfblf krdy rhy. aMq sfrI siQqI qy gMBIrqf nfl soc ivcfr qoN bfad, BuwK nfl mrn jF hiQafr suwt ky eIn mMn lYx dI QF, jMg ivwc jUJ ky hId hoxf pRvfn kr ilaf. iswK ispfhI BuwK aqy ibmfrI kfrn, hwd drjy dy kmor ho cuwky sn. ies hfl ivwc BI bfbf jI df hukm pf ky dumx POj qy bfjF vFg Jpt pey. keI keI mfr ky mrdy gey. ibmfrI qy srIrk kmjorI kfrn CyqI hMB gey, srIr inZfl ho gey, qy mIn qy izgdy gey. hux bfbf bMdf isMG lVn vflf iekwlf rih igaf. do mIl df arD golfkfr cwkr bxfky, BfrI igxqI ivwc fhI POj Aus nfl lV rhI sI. Auh DfeI krky jYkfry gujfAuNdf ijwDr pYNdf dumxf ivwc BfjVF pf idMdf. bMdf isMG ibjlI dI qyjI nfl, mYdfn ivwc sqr clf irhf sI. Aus ijAuNdy pkVn vfsqy, nfmI sUrbIr awgy vDdy, qy Auh sfiraF plF ivwc hI, mIn qy ZyrI kr idMdf. afpxI idn Br dI asfvIN, qy lfimsfl sUrmgqI nfl lVidaF, bfbf jI ny fhI POj dy 59 lVfky XoiDaF agly jhfn pucf idwqf. jdoN Auh Qwk ky cUr ho igaf, hiQafr iewk iewk krky jvfb idMdy gey, Gyrf hor BIVf kr ilaf igaf. ies hflq ivwc bhuq sfry lskr ny Jptf mfr ky bfbf jI qy hwlf bol idwqf, qy PVky, byVIaF ivwc jkVky, ipMjry ivwc bMd kr ilaf. bfbf jI ny hiQafr nhIN suwty, jfn bKI leI koeI Pirafd nhIN kIqI. mOky df gvfh, kmr Kfn ilKdf hY - ieh sB Kudf dI rihmq hI sI, isafxp jF bhfdrI nhIN. sB jfxdy hn ik mrhUm bfdfh bhfdr sfh, afpxy cfry spuwqrF qy axigxq POjI jrnYlF nfl lY ky, ies bgfvq dbfAux df jqn krdf irhf. pr sPl nf ho sikaf. hux iehnF kfrF (iswKF) BuwK aqy ibmfrI dy kfrn igRPqfr kIqf jf sikaf hY.``

gurdfs nMgl dI jMg ivwcoN ijAuNdy, bhuq QoVy iswK PVy jf sky. fhI POj ny apxI ijwq vwzI iswD krn leI, dUroN nyiVEN hor bydoy iswK PV ilaFdy. iehnF dI kul igxqI 740 kr leI geI. iqMn hfr iswKF dy isr kwt ky nyijaF qy tMg ley gey. iehnF dI hoxI qoN lgBwg hr pfTk jfxUM hY. sO sO krky hr roj idwlI ivwc hId kIqy gey. iksy iewk ny BI, jfn bKy jfx df vfsqf nhIN pfieaf. sfiraF hI bhfdrF vflI mOq kbUl kIqI. bfbf bMdf isMG jI sB qoN mgroN 19 jUn 1716 asih qy akih qsIhy dy ky, bMd bMd kwt ky, hId kIqf igaf. Aus gurU dy vrosfey gur iswK, Kflsf kOm dy pihly jrnYl, byqfj bfdfh, aduwqI sUrbIr ny, lflc vs jF qsIihaF qoN zr ky eIn nhIN mMnI. jfn bKI leI qrly nhIN kwZy. gurU kf isdkI iswK rihMidaF bhfdrI dy nvyN kIrqImfn sQfpq kridaF, jfn dI bfI lf igaf. sdf vfsqy sRRomxI hIdF ivwc apxf nfm drj krvf ilaf.

gurdfs nMgl dI gVHI qy kbjf ho jfx qy, POj dy jo iswKF df sfmfn qy sqr hwQ afey, Aus pVH suxky qF dMg rih jfeIdf hY. mfmUlI hiQafrF nfl, nfmfqr sfDnf duafrf, awT mhIny qwk eyIaf dI sB qoN kqIflI hkUmqI qfkq nfl lohf lYNdy rhy. gVHI ivwc jo sfmfn imilaf Ausdf vyrvf ieAuN hY -

qlvfrF 1000, kmfnf dy BwQy 173

ZflF 278, qoVydfr bMdUkF 180

jmDr KMjr 114, krdF (CotIaF ikrpfnF) 217

sony dIaF mohrF 23, ngd rupY 600 qoN kuwJ vD, kuJ sony dy gihxy.

vyrvf-iervn ivlIam, lYtr mugnj, pMnf-351

pfTk jn ieh gwl ivy qOr qy not krn ik aKOqI qwq Kflsf ivwcoN, koeI iewk ivakqI BI, ies iBafnk smyN ikDry njr nhIN afAuNdf. ieiqhfs dI isqm jrIPI vyKo, ijnF hws hws ky jfnF vfr idwqIaF, Auh bMdeI Kflsy bxf Dry. jMg ivwc dgf dy ky GrF ivwc lukx vfly, srkfr qoN ienfm qy jgIrF pRfpq krn vfly, iewjq axK vycx vfly, qwq Kflsf hox df ZMzorf ipwtx lwg pey. RomxI ieiqhfskfr zf: gMzf isMG qF, bfbf jI bfry ieAuN ilKdf hY - bMdf isMG bhfdr, aTfhrvIN sdI ivwc pYdf hoey BfrqI XoiDaF ivwcoN, sB qoN lfimsfl hY. BfvyN AusdI hfdq sdIaF bIq geIaF hn, pr ajy BI afpxy Drm BrfvF leI cfnx munfrf hY, agvfeI qy sUrbIrqf df somf hY.``

hux kuJ ivcfrF gMgf rfm bRfhmx (pRisD gMgU) dy lVky rfj kOl vwloN bMdf isMG qoN hiQafr sutvfAux bfry. pMizq jvfhr lfl nihrU df vizwkf rfj kOl, hor koeI nhIN, gurU goibMd isMG jI dy Gr, vIh sfl qwk rotIaF pkfAux vfly rsoeIey dy gMgU df puwqr sI. ijsny bfad ivwc ivsfh Gfq krky, mfqf gUjrI jI, aqy Coty sfihbjfidaF vIr Kfn kol igRPqfr krvfieaf sI. pr vjIr Kfn ny gMgU qoN mfqf jI vflf Dn BI Koh ilaf qy iekrfr muqfbk ienfm BI nf idwqf. iesy gMgU df lVkf sI rfj kOl, jo iswKF dy kihr qoN, BYmfn hoky, kmIr jf visaf sI. piVHaf hox krky srkfrI nOkrI qy lwgf hoieaf sI. jdoN PruwsIaq ies pRvfr vwloN kIqI geI srkfr dI syvf df pqf lwigaf, qF Ausny kmIr dy gvrnr afK ky gMgU pRvfr (rfjkOl) lwB ilaf, qy AuhnF idwlI afpxy kol swd ilaf. idwlI ivwc nihr dy iknfry, coKI mIn qy iewk irhfie leI koTI b idwqI. idwlI drbfr ivwc BI rfjkOl srkfrI nOkrI dy idwqI geI. nihr iknfry vsy hox kfrn, ieh nihrU kOl aKvfx lg pey. smyN dy Pyr nfl, kOl BI nfm nfloN htf idwqf igaf, kyvl nihrU rihx idwqf igaf. Xfd rwKxf cfhIdf hY ik sfry Bfrq ivwc, nihrU AupjfqI vflf, koeI iewk BI bRfhmx nhIN hY. ies pRvfr ny afpxI Aup jfqI, iswKF dy BY, aqy sMsfr dI nmoI qoN bcx leI bdl leI hY. ieQy ieh iDafn rhy, bfbf bMdf isMG ny iehnF dy (rfjkOl) afKy lwg ky igRPqfrI nhIN idwqI. Aupr vrixq kuJ qwQF qF Kud nihrU jvfhr lfl ny svIkfr kIqf hY (afAutobfieEgRfPI-1949, pMnf-1) nihrU Kfndfn bfry Bfrq dy rih cuky rftrpqI, rfDfikRn dy ieiqhfskfr byty, aYs[ gopfl ny cMgI jfxkfrI idwqI hY. Auh ilKdf hY - nihrU pRvfr dy nsIb, puq dr puq, muslmfnF hfkmF nfl bxy rhy hn. ieh Kfndfn, AuhnF bhuq sfry KfndfnF ivwcoN iewk sI, ijnF rfj swqf rfhIN hoNd ivwc afey, hflfq aqy mOikaF qoN lfB pRfpq kIqf hY.`` lyKk vIrF inmrqf sihq bynqI hY ik ilKx qoN pihlF, sfry pwKF ivcfr ilaf krn. ijQy gurdoKIaF ny pMQ df ilKqF rfhIN byaMq nuksfn kIqf hY, AuQy apxy afKy jfx vfly lyKkF ny koeI Gwt nuksfn nhIN kIqf. ieh purfxy qy nvyN aKOqI ieiqhfskfrF dI ilst bhuq lMmI hY. apxy rOn ieiqhfs dfgdfr nF krIey. kOmI hIiraF Gwty nF rolIey[[[[[[.




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