.

isWK dI qfrIP

ipRMsIpl igafnI surjIq isMG, isWK imsLnrI, idWlI

isWK dI qfrIP- Bfv isWK kOx hY? vfly pwK vl vwDx qoN pihlF sfnMU dUjy do pKF vl ivsLys iDafx dyx dI loV hY. pihlf- srUp qy dUjf-suBfa vflf pWK. isWK Drm apxy afp c invyklf aqy ivWlKx Drm hY ijs c iksy pRkfr dI bnfvt, idKfvy jF krmkFz nMU koeI QF hY hI nhIN. isWK df suBfa, gurbfxI ny GWVHxf hY aqy srUp pKoN kys mnuWKI srUp df kuWdrqI qy ainWKVvF aMg hn. iehnF donF pWKF dI sMBfl hI mnuWK df isK ho inWbVxf hY.

kys- mnuWKf srIr leI, Aus aBuWl akflpurKu dI dfq hn ijsny sfnMU aWKF, nWk, kMn, mUMh, hWQ, idmfg Bfv sB kuJ bKisLaf hY. iesqRI-purK dy PLrk nfl ijs aMg qy ijMnI qy jdoN loV huMdI hY, pRBu ny AuMny hI kys bKsLy hn. kyvl mnuWK hI nhIN blik sfrI jIv sLyRxI c myl-iPLmyl dy PLrk nfl kysF vfly ies nIXm nUM afsfnI nfl dyiKaf qy smiJaf jf skdf hY. asF apxy ies sMpUrx mnuWKf srUp dI sMBfl, aMdroN qy bfhroN Bfv srUp qy suBfa, donF pKF qoN krnI hY ajyhy jIvn df nfm hI isWK jIvn hY. jIvn pKoN-gurbfxI isiKaf Aupr cWlky, mnuWK ny afpxy aMdroN anmnuWKI suBfa nMU KWqm krnf hY. anmnuWKI suBfa qoN arQ hY, nsLy, ivWBcfr, DoKf, TWgI, Pryb, ZoNg, jLulm-DWkf, ivWqkrf, jfq-pfq, CUaf-CUq, luWt-KsuWt, suWc-iBWt, vYr-dvysL, tUxy-pWrCfvyN, idKfvy, srIr pUjf qy hor anykF krmkfMz jF Dfrmk TWgIaF-ieh sfry aMnmnuWKI suBfa dI hI Aupj hn.

mnuWK jdoN bfhroN, apxy rWbI srUp dI sMBfl krdf hY aqy aMdroN rihxI krky gurbfxI isWiKaf vl vWDdf hY, qF iesy df nfm-isWK Drm c pRvysL kr jfxf ho jFdf hY. pMj ipafiraF koloN, gurU gRMQ sfihb dI hjLUrI c pfhul lYx df mWqlb vI isWK rfhIN gurbfxI dI isiKaf Aupr clx df pRx krxf hY. ieh vI jLrUrI hY ik pfhul lYx qoN pihlF aiBlfsLI sWjx, iesqRI jF purK-srUp dI kWt-vWz jF Dfrmk ByKF ijvyN sfDU, sMq, jogI sinafsI afid qoN AuBr cuWkf hoy aqy jIvn Br Aus qoN sucyq rihx leI pfbMd hovy. bWs, iehI hY-isWK dI qfrIP.

ivsLy vl vWDx qoN pihlF sfnUM iesdy dUjy pWK vl vI ivsLys iDafn dyx dI loV hY. sMsfr pWDr qy ijMny vI Drm hn bhuqf krky, iksy ivsLysL smyN qy iksy ivsLysL kMm nMU kr lYxf, iesy df nfm amuky Drm df anuafeI ho jfxf hY. iksy ivsLysL smyN qy tWlIaF vjf lYxIaF, vrq-rojy rK lYxy, iqlk lgf lYxy, iksy ivsLysL rUp jF ByK-pihrfvy nMU Dfrn kr lYxf, mflf pf lYxIaF, Gr-pRvfr df iqafg krky jMglF c cly jfxf, lMmIaF smfDIaF. hor lvo, iksy ivsLysL rihxI aqy ivcfrDfrf df ivWsLvfsI ho jfxf, srIr nMU anykF pRkfr dy qWpF rfhINN qpfAuxf, qIrQ XfqrfvF aqy iesLnfn, suWcF-iBWtF, cONky, kfrF-pRCfvy, sgnF-apxgnF dy vihm, tyvy, mhUrq. iesyqrHF iQWqF-vfrF jF svyr-sfm dy Brm, jfq-vrx qy Auc nIc dy Brm, mnuWKI gulfmI ijvyN ikWDry bRfhmx dI gulfmI qy ikWDry mOlvI dI gulfmI Bfv srIr pUjf, AuprMq mUrqI-qsvIr-pWQr pUjf, mMqr rtx, dyv jF rfm-ikRsLn afid nUM Bgvfn mMn ky AunHf dI pUjf aqy hor bhuq kuJ. ies sfry dy Ault ieQy guurU pfqsLfh ny ieh sfry aqy hor ajyhy sMsfr pWDr dy ajyhy krmF nUM Drm df aMg hI nhIN mMinaf. mnuWK nUM kyvl aqy kyvl srv ivafpI ieWk akflpurKu dI pihcfx krvffeI hY aqy isWK jIvn c iksy vI ivcoly jF pujfrI sLRyxI nUM koeI QF hfsl nhIN.

suafs suafs df Drm hY isWK Drm- gurU pfqsLfh ny smfj nMU iek hor nvIN syD vI idWqI, Auh sI mnuWKf jnm dI ivsLysLqf, Auqmqf, iesdf ipCokV aqy sMBfl. isWK df Drm- cOvI GMty, hr pWl, idn-rfq, dI jIvn soJI aqy sMBfl df nfm hY. ieh suafs-suafs df Drm hY. mnuWK zfktr bxdf hY, ieMjInIar bxdf hY, ivigafnI bxdf hY, dukfndfr hY pr swcy Drm qoN ibnF Auh sWB kuWJ bxky vI shI arQF c iensfn nhIN bx skdf. injI jIvn, pRvfrk, sfmfjk qy rfjnIqk jIvn qoN lY ky AusnMU jIvn dy hr ikwqy aqy hr Kyqr c jIvn ivigafn aQvf sWcy Drm dI soJI dI loV hY; nhIN qF mnuWK, afpxf sfrf jIvn psLU dI inafeI aqy psLU dI pWDr qy hI KWqm kr dyNdf hY. sfihb sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb jI dy 1430 pMny iesy sWcfeI aqy Drm leI swdf dy rhy hn. sMsfrk igafn dI iek CotI ijMnHI puWsqk vI jdoN qIk asIN pVHdy nhIN, nhIN dWs skdy ik Aus pusqk aMdr kI iliKaf hY. ies dy Ault gurU gRMQ sfihb jI agy kyvl mwQf tyk ky hI asIN isWK aKvfAuxf cfhuMdy hF, ieh bhuqI dyr sMBv nhIN. jdoN sMsfr pWDr df ieh srboqm igafn, ieh jIvn ivigafn sfzy jIvn df clx bx jFdf hY qF kyvl asIN afp hI nhIN blik afpxy nfl anykF nMU ies rwbI igafn df rfhI bxf skdy hF, PLurmfn hY "mMnY prvfrY sfDfru" (jpu-pAuVI 15). gurU nfnk pfqsfh df Drm qF "bMdy Koju idl hr roj nf iPru prysfnI mfih" (pMnf 727) vflf hY..

Drm kyvl ieko hI hY- sWcfeI ieh hY ik 500 qoN vWD smyN c vI ajy asF iehI nhIN smiJaf ik gurU pfqsLfh ny dWs jfmyN Dfrn krky sfnMU jo Drm bKisLaf- Auh Drm hY kI? asl c gurbfxI qoN pRgt hox vflf Drm hI-hr mnuWK df mUl aqy sdIvI Drm hY. pfqsLfh ny kyvl DrmF dI igxqI c vfDf krn vfsqy ies Drm nUM pRgt nhIN kIqf. iehI kfrx hY ik gurbfxI smUcy mnuWK mfqr nUM sMboDn hY aqy ies df bIj pfqsLfh ny afp sfrI mfnvqf c pfieaf hY. isWK qF Ausy mfnv-DrqI c pfey hoey iesy bIj rfhIN pRPulq hoieaf ieWk imWTf PWl hY ijsny apxy jIvn nUM gurU pfqsLfh dy hukmF qoN inWCfvr kr idWqf hY.

drasl apxI aigafnqf kfrn aj asIN isWK Drm df jo srUp, sMsfr sfhmxy pysL kr rhy hF ies ivcoN nf hI sfnMU isK dI qfrIP vflI smJ af rhI hY aqy nf hI asIN sMsfr nMU smJf pf rhy hF. jdoN asIN Auprokq srUp aqy suBfa vfly do juuWVvyN pr mUl pKF nMU afpxI soJI df ivsLf bnfvFgy, qF isWK dI qfrIP afeIny dI qrHF spWsLt huMdy dyr nhIN lgygI.

isWK aKvfAux df hwkdfr kOx?- isWK dI qfrIP qoN Bfv hY ik isWK aKvfAux df hwkdfr kOx hY aqy kOx nhIN. isWK dy lwCx kI hn, isWK dy jIvn dI pihcfx kI hY? drasl isWK df mWqlb hI sfihb sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb jI jI dI isiKaf df isK ho jfxf hY. dUjy sLbdF ivc kyvl Auh iesqRI jF pursL ijMny afpxy jIvn nMU gurU gRMQ sfihb jI dI isiKaf agy smRpq kIqf hoieaf hY. ijMny pRx lY ilaf hY ik Auh kyvl AuhI jIvn jIeygf, jo gurbfxI dI isiKaf dy Gyry c afAuNdf hY aqy hr iek Auh krm jo sfihb sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb jI rfhIN bKsLI jIvn syD anusfr nhIN, AusnMU iqafgx c iZwl nhIN krygf. dUjy sLbdF c ijs ny pMj ipafiraF rfhIN, sfihb sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb jI nMU bfkfiedf apxf jIvn gurU Dfrn kIqf hY, Auh isWK hY. gurU Dfrn krn df mWqlb hI ieko hY: gurU gRMQ sfihb jI dI afigaf c clx df vWcn dyxf aqy jo socxI-krnI-rihnI-gurbfxI anusfr nhIN AusnMU iqafgx c rwqI iZwl nhIN krnI.

kyvl bfxI dI isiKaf df pfbMd hoxf hI ikAuN?- ikAuNik isWK df mWqlb hI bfxI isiKaf df pfbMd hoxf hY. suafl pYdf huMdf hY ik afiKr bfxI dI isiKaf df hI ikAuN? iksy hor dI isiKaf df ikAuN nhIN? AWuqr ieh hY ik ieh lPLjL bKisLaf vI bfxI ny hY iesqoN pihlF qF ies lPLjL df ikWDry vjUd hI nhIN sI aqy bKisLaf vI kyvl bfxI dI isiKaf Aupr clx vfly leI hY, iksy hor vfsqy nhIN. gurbfxI ivcoN hI anykF pRmfx ies bfry spWsLt imldy hn ijvyN "so isKu sKf bMDpu hY BfeI ij gur ky Bfxy ivic afvY ] afpxY BfxY jo clY BfeI ivCuiV cotf KfvY ] ibnu siqgur suKu kdy n pfvY BfeI iPir iPir pCoqfvY ]" (pM: 601) aqy "gurisK mIq clhu gur cflI ] jo guru khY soeI Bl mfnhu hir hir kQf inrflI" (pM:667)

isWK dI pihcfx bfry qF pfqsLfh afp PurmFdy hn "isKI isiKaf gur vIcfir ] ndrI krim lGfey pfir" (pM:465) Bfv bfxI dI vIcfr krky, bfxI gurU dI isiKaf anusfr jIvn bqIq krn vflf mnuWK hI isWK ho skdf hY .iesqrHF ajyhf mnuWK "ndrI krim lGfey pfir" gurU-akflpurKu dI bKisLsL df pfqr bxky, jnm-mrn dy gyVH coN inkl jFdf hY. hor lvo "gurmuiK hoie su hukmu pCfxY mfnY hukmu smfiedf" (pM:1037) aqy "gurmiq mnu ThrfeIaY myrI ijMduVIey anq n kfhU zoly rfm" (pM: 538) Bfv gurU dI isiKaf (mWq) anusr mn nUM itkfvy qy hor ieWDr-AuDr nf BWtky. muWkdI gl ieh ik isWK df mqlb hI iehI hY ijMny apxf jIvn bfxI gurU dI mWq nMU Byt kIqf hY iehI arQ gurmuiK dy vI hn. ies qrHF iek-do-cfr vfrI nhIN blik hjLfrF Purmfn gurbfxI smuMdr coN ies sWcfeI nUM spWsLt krdy hn ijhVy ik isWK dI qfrIP nMU hI Aujfgr kr rhy hn.

isWK rihq mirafdf anusfr, isWK dI qfrIP- rihq mirafdf anusfr "jo iesqrI jF pursL iek akfl purK, dWs gurU sfihbfn (sRI gurU nfnk dyv jI qoN lY ky sRI gurU goibMd isMG sfihb qk) sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb aqy dWs gurU sfihbfn dI bfxI qy isiKaf aqy dsmysL jI dy aMimRq qy insLcf rwKdf hY aqy iksy hor Drm nMU nhIN mMndf, Auh isK hY" ieQy vI gl afpxy afp ivc spWsLt ho jFdI hY. ijhVf mnuWK (iesqRI jF purK) gurU sfihbfn dI bfxI anusfr cldf hoieaf iek akflpurKu qoN CuWt iksy hor Aupr ivsLvfs nhIN rKdf, kyvl AuhI isWK hY. iesyqrHF aMimRq qy insLcf rKx df mWksd vI iehI hY ijsny pfhul lYky, gurU gRMQ sfihb jI nMU apxf gurU Dfrn kIqf hY. iesdy Ault jy kr koeI ieh kihxf cfhy ik mYnUM aMimRq qy insLcf qF hY pr mYN Cwkxf nhIN jF CWikaf nhIN jF jdoN mn krygf afpy CWk lvFgy qF ieh gl apxy afp ivc hI hfsohIxI bx ky rih jFdI hY. insLcy df mWqlb hI iehI hY ik amukI gl nfl myrI sFJ hY.

jdoN iesy gl nMU asIN gurU nfnk pfqsLfh dy afgmn qoN lY ky dsmysL jI dy joqI joq smfAux qIk Bfv 239 sflF dy smyN ivcoN pVcoldy hF qF dsmysL jI dy aMimRq qy insLcy vflI gl- hr iek isWK df gurUnfnk pfqsLfh dy smyN qoN hI pfhulDfrI hoxf hor vI spWsLt ho jFdf hY. gurU pfqsLfh qoN crx pfhul lYky ijnHF jIviVaF ny afpxy afp nMU gurbfxI jIvn dy smRpx kr idWqf, gurbfxI c pfqsLfh ny AunHF leI hI sLbd isWK vriqaf hY aqy jo ajy ies jIvn pWdvI nMU pRfpq nhIN sn ho sky AunHF leI "sKf, imwqr, bMDp" afid vWK sLbd hn. gurbfxI dy gurU hox df isDFq vI pihly jfmy qoN hI spWsLt kr idWqf igaf sI.

isWK kyvl AuhI, jo gurbfxI isiKaf nUM smRpq hY- gurU nfnk pfqsLfh ny apxy joqI joq smfAux smyN gurbfxI KjLfny vflI ijLmyvfrI gurU aMgd pfqsLfh dy supurd kIqI. jy srIr gurU huMdf qF gurU nfnk pfqsLfh qoN bfd gurU agMd pfqsLfh gurU pWd nMU pRfpq nhIN sn ho skdy. ieQy qF gurU sLbd-gurbfxI vfsqy hI sI aqy AusdI isiKaf-soJI nMU smripq hox vfly nUM-isK ikhf hY. ieQoN qIk ik jdoN gurU nfnk pfqsLfh dy vwzy sfihbjLfdy bfbf sRI cMd ny apxf vwKrf zyrHf sQfpq kr ilaf qF isWK kyvl AuhI kihlfey jo smyN anusfr dUjy pfqsLfh dI sLrx c af gey jF dUjy pfqsLfh qoN pfhul dI dfq pRfpq kIqI. ijhVy sRI cMd jI dy zyrHy vl Bwtk gey Auh BfvyN kuJ vI khy jfx pr isWK nhIN khlvfey. iesy qrHF drjf-b-drjf ijhVy qIjy, cOQy, pMjvyN aMq dWsvyN pfqsLfh dI sLrx c afey aqy pfhul pRfpq krky gurbfxI anusfr, jIvn jIAux df pRx ilaf, kyvl Auh hI isWK kihlvfey. ijhVy smyN-smyN nfl dfqU jI, ipRQIcMd, myhrbfn, rfmrfey, DIr mfl jF hor ieWDr EDr Bwtk gey, Auh cfhy kuJ vI hox pr isWK dI qfrIP dy dfiery c nhIN afAuNdy aqy isWK aKvfAux dy hwkdfr nhIN rhy aqy nf hI isWK kihlvf sky. iesqrHF gurU nfnk sfihb qoN hI isWK kox hY aqy kOx nhIN ieh sWcfeI spWsLt hMudy dyr nhIN lgdI. iehI kfrn sI ik BfeI mMJ nMU isWK khlvfAux vfsqy lgfqfr bfrHF sfl Gflxf GflxI peI.

ivsfKI sMn 1699 aqy isWK dI qfrIP- igafn rqnfvlI c BfeI mnI isMG ijLkr krdy hn jdoN BfeI mrdfny ny BfeI nIrU nMU crxpfhul idWqI qF iqMn AupdysL idWqy "pihlf- kysF nMU kWql nhIN krvfAuxf, dUjf- afey gey isWK dI syvf krnI, qIjf-pihr rfq rihNdI jfgky siqnfm df jfp krnf" ieQoN do gWlF spWsLt ho jFdIaF hn. pihlf- BfeI mrdfnf, kyvl pfhul pRfpq isWK hI nhIN sn blik dUijaF nMu crxpfhul dyx vfly aiDkfrI pRcfrk vI sn. dUjf-isWK hox vfsqy pihly jfmy qoN hI sMpUrn kysfDfrI srUp c afAuxf jLrUrI sI. gurbfxI gurU hox df isDFq vI gurU nfnk sfihb ny hI pRgt kr idWqf sI aqy bfxI c ies bfry anykF pRmfx mOjUd hn. gurdyv ny sfnMU vI Ausy bfxI dy hI isWK hox df mfx bKisLaf hY. ieQy iek gl hor ivsLysL iDafn mMgdI hY Auh ieh ik gurU dr qy crx pfhul df kdy vI mWqlb pYr Do ky ipafAux vflf niKWD qrIkf kdy vI pRvfn nhIN sI ieWQy qF crx pfhulL df mWqlb sI jigafsU nUM bfxI dy crxF nfl joVxf aqy iesdI pRoVqf leI vI gurbfxI KjLfny coN anykF pRmfx idWqy jf skdy hn.

ivsfKI sMn 1699 nMU jdoN pfqsLfh ny gurbfxI juWgq nUM vrqfAux vflI srIrk ijLmyNvfrI pMjf dy rUp c pMQ nUM sOp idWqI qF pfhul df ZMg vI crxpfhul qoN KMzy dI pfhul c bdl idWqf. pfqsLfh ny ieh vI hukm kIqf ik nvyN bdlyy gey isWK Drm c pRvysL dy ZMg anusfr, sfrI sMgq nvyN isry qoN KMzy dI pfhul lvy. iesdf vwzf ieiqhfsk sbUq hY, ik ies nvyN bdly hoey ZMg anusfr pMjF-pMjF pfsoN, sB qoN pihlF dsmysL jI ny afp pfhul pRfpq kIqI. hflFik pihlI KMzy dI pfhul vflf bftf dsmysL jI ny afp iewkilaF hI iqafr kIqf sI aqy pihly pMjF nMU CWkfieaf vI iewkilaF hI sI.

nvyN ZMg anusfr sfiraF nMU iPLr qoN pfhul lYx df hukm krnf aqy sB qoN pihlF afpxy afp nMU Aus leI pysL krnf, ies gl nMU spWsLt krdf hY ik pfhul lYky gurbfxI nMU gurU Dfrn krn df pMQ aMdr kyvl aqy kyvl ieko hI ZMg hY, imlgoBf jF vWK vWK nhIN.

KMzy dI pfhul ibnF asIN isWK nhIN- idWqy jf cuky vyrvy qoN ieh gWl pUrI qrHF sfbq ho cuWkI hy ik gurU nfnk pfqsLfh dy smyN qoN lY ky dWsvyN pfqsLfh qIk isWK dI qfrIP, drjf-b-drjf sMbMDq gurU pfqsLfh dI sLrn ivc afAuxf, pfhul pRfpq krnI aqy gurbfxI dI agvfeI c jIvn jIAUx df pRx lYxf hI huMdf sI. iesy cldI af rhI prIpftI anusfr jdoN dsmysL jI ny pfhul dI pRfpqI df ZMg bWdilaf, qF vI isWK dI qfrIP AuhI rhI ijhVI ik pihlF qoN cldI af rhI sI- Bfv ijs ny KMzy bfty dI pfhul pRfpq kIqI hovy, Aus qoN pihlF nhIN. iesy df nfm isWK rihq-mirXfdf c dsLmysL jI dy aMimRq qy insLcf ilafAuxf hY, vWKrf nhIN.

isWK dI qfrIP qy aWj df ivgfV- sMn 1716 c bfbf bMdf isMG bhfdur dI sLhfdq qoN kfPI smF bfad qIk vI isWK df mWqlb hI pfhulDfrI sI. BfvyN ik ies sLhfdq qoN bfd Auh dOr sLurU ho jFdf hY jdo iisWK jMglF, mfrUQlf, phfVF c cly gey aqy gurduafiraF qy aMnaiDkfrI BfeI, gRMQI, pujfrI, mhMq dy rUp c kfibjL ho gey sn. iehnF coN bhuqy bRfhmx vrg ivcoN hI sn. iesy df nqIjf sI ik hr iek anmqI qy bRfhmxI rihxI-ivsLvfs nMU gurmq dI cfsLnI cVHf ky gurduafiraF c lfgU kr idWqf igaf. isWK ieiqhfs c vI DVWly nfl vfDy-Gfty qy rWl-gWz kIqy gey. iQWq-vfr, sMgrFdf-mWisafvF-pUrnmfisLaF, nOrfqy- srfD, asLtmIaF, svyr-sLfm, jfq-pfq, mflf-jWp-qWp-rtOxIaf, CUaf-CUq, suWc iBWt, vr-sLfp, sMsfrk kfmnfvF qy PWl dI pRfpqI leI bfxI dy qoqf rtx, aKMz pfT, pYsy dy ky pfT krvfAuxy, suWKxF-cflIhy afid hWT krm, Dfgy-qvIq, jmny-mrny-anMdkfrj leI sfry bRfhmxI ZMg, rIqF qy sWgx-apsgxZMg; Bfv ik hriek bRfhmxI krmkFz, vihm-sihm, soc-rihxI-rhu rIq, ieQoN qIk ik mUrqI pUjf vI gurduafiraF c pRvysL kr geI. gurbfxI jIvn qoN dUr, ieh sfry krm isWKI dy nfm qy hI huMdy-huMdy aMq isWKI jIvn df hI aMg bxdy gey. sMn 1799 jdoN Kflsf rfj df afieaf qF AudoN qIk isWKI jIvn kyvl ivWprn dIaF rIqF df Zyr hI bx ky rih cuWkf sI. ajyhy smyN rfj sWqf kfrn, ienHF aMnmqI rhu-rIqF nUM rfjsI pWDr qy hor vI pWikafeI imlI. isWKF qy isWK mhfrfijaF aMdr isWKI aqy gurU vfsqy sLrDf qF byaMq sI, pr jIvn ivcoN gurbfxI soJI alop ho cuWkI sI. jdoN rihxI hI aMnmq dI sI qF pfhul lYxf vI kyvl iek rIq pUrI krn vflf krmkFz bMxdf-bMxdf aMq apxI aslIaq vI guaf bYTf. ieMnF hI nhIN isWK Drm c ieh jyhVI nvIN pujfrI sLRyxI pYdf ho cuWkI sI AunHF df insLfnf vI pfhul df Tykydfr bxnf aqy sMgqF leI iesnUM hAuaf bxfky rKxf hI sI; TIk Ausy qrHF ijvyN ik bRfhmx vrg ny pihlF qoN hI vydF dy igafn Aupr apxf kbjLf bnfieaf hoieaf sI.

afiKr ieh isWK rfj vI sMn 1849 c KWqm ho igaf aqy pMjfb Aupr aMgryjL pUrI qrHF kfbj ho gey. aMgryjL bVf dUr aMdysL sI. Auh dyK cuWkf sI ik isWK kOm, iek josLIlI kOm hY. isWK, gurU dy nF qoN mr imWtx vfly aqy vWcn dy sUry hn. isWK kOm-ipWCly 84 sflF (sMn 1716 qoN 1799) dI ies bRfhmxI mfr kfrn qF pihlF hI gurbfxI jIvn qoN KflI ho cuWkI sI. ajyhf vfqfvrx mjLbUq kIqf igaf ik isKF dy josL nUM vrqx leI ienHF nUM gurbfxI pKoN jfgRqI af hI nf sky. aMgryjLF ny PojF ivWckfr sfzI sLkl dI qF bVI sMBfl kIqI, isWK PLOjI leI pfhulDfrI hoxf pWkf kr idWqf igaf. pr ieh sB sfnUM apxI jLrUrq leI vrqx leI hI Ausdy vI hWQkMzy sn. Ausny vI sfzy ieiqhfs c kfPLI rWl-gWZ dy nvyN rsqy Koly. nvyN gurUzMm KVy kiqy gey qy ipWCly drvfjLy qoN AunHF guMJlF nUM kfPLI hWvf idWqI. KYr! isWKI jIvn qoN qF pihlF bRhmx dyvqy dI ikrpf nfl asIN pUrI qrHF KflI ho hI cuWky dy sF bfkI kWsr aMgryjLf ny pUrI kr idWqI. pUrI gl nUM smJx leI apxy afp c ieh ieWk lMmI ivWiQaf qy vWKrf ivsLf hY ijsnUM gurmWq pfT nM: 77 gurbfxI qoN PLfslf ikAuN? c inBfafieaf igaf hY.

ieQy qF kyvl ies gl vl hI iDafn duafAux dI loV hY ik jdoN isWK dI qfrIP hI pfhulDfrI hoxf aqy gurbfxI afigaf c jIvn nMU Zflxf hY qF kI kfrx hn ik aj kOm df vWzf ihWsf ibnf pfhul hY. jF iPLr kI aWj ieh mMn lYxf cfhIdf hY ik ijnHF ny pfhul nhIN leI Auh isWK hI nhIN hn, jF ieh mMn ilaf jfvy ik aWj dy sMDrB c isWK dI qfrIP hI bdl cuWkI hY qy isWK leI pfhulDfrI hoxf jLrUrI hI nhIN jF kuJ hor. aWj lgBg sfzI iehI hflq bxI peI hY.

aWj bhuqf krky isWK dy jIvn dI pWDr gurduafry jf ky mWQf tyk lYxf, QoVf bhuq pfT kr lYxf jF iksy KusLI-gmI qy pYsy dy ky aKMz pfT krvf lYxf hI rih cuWkf hY. aWj sfzy GrF c aMnmqI aqy hUVmqI rihnI isLWKrF qy puWj cWukI hY aqy isWKI rihxI lWBxI aAuKI hoeI peI hY. sLrDf byaMq hY pr nf hI bfxI dI soJI hY nf jIvx. hflq ieQoN qIk pWqlI ho cuWkI hY-inWqnym qF dUr, aj vWzI igxqI c isWK vIr qy bIbIaF afp ardfsf soDx dy vI smrQ nhIN hn.

isWKI jIvn dy do aMg-srUp aqy gurbfxI- gurbfxI iek jIvn ivigafn hY ijsny mnuWK nMU aMdroN-bfhroN sWcf suWcf iensfn bnfAuxf hY. srUp qF jnm qoN hI iml igaf pr jykr aMdr gurbfxI dI ivcfr nhIN qF jIvn kdy bx hI nhIN skdf. ies qrHF nf hI asIN afp isWK dI qfrIPL dy mhWqv nMU smJ skdy hF aqy nf hI dUijaF nMu smJfAux dy kfibl ho skdy hF. ies gWl nMU smJx vfsqy sfnMU iesy gurmWq pfT dy arMB c idWqy isKI jIvn dy donF pWKF vl iPr iDafn dyx dI loV hY. jy hor dyr kIqI geI qF aWj Auh ivroDI sLkqIaF vI pxp rhIaF hn ijnHF df jLor hI ies gWl qy hY ik isWK hox leI kysfDfrI hoxf vI jLrUrI nhIN.

sWcfeI iehI hY ik aWj isWK smfj c ijMnIaF vI ivprn dIaF rIqF qy aMnmq dy pRBfv vWD rhy hn, Auh dUijaF qoN nhIN, blik gurduafiraF rfhIN pRcfry aqy svIkfry jf rhy isWKI pRcfr df hI aMg hn. ikMny duWK dI gWl hY ik aj dy juWg c jdoN, ky[ jI, nWrsrI dIaF klfsF leI qF Gto GWt bI[ eyz[ tIcr jrUrI hY pr gurU nfnk dI aflmgIrI isWKI nMU pVHfAux, smJfAux qy pRcfrx leI pVHfeI qy jIvn dI loV hI nhIN. iesyqrHF pRbMDkF c ikho ijhI Xogqf qy jIvn hoxf hY ajyhf koeI mfpZMz nhIN, bfkI coxF dy inXm ny rihMdI kWsr vI pUrI kr idWqI hY. Xogqf dy afDfr qy priKaf jfx vflf Drm, aj coxF dI gMdgI c zuWbf ipaf hY.

isWK dI qfrIP qy sLbdfvlI df pRBfv- aWj anykF nvyN nvyN sLbd ijvyN aMimRq Cko-isMG sjo. kmfl hY! asF afp hI mMn ilaf hY ik isMG hor hn qy isK hor jF pfhul lYky koeI isMG sWjdf hY nhIN qF isWK qF sfry hI hn. kihxf qF cfhIdf sI pfhul lYky asF isWK sWjxf hY. iesyqrHF iek hor sLbd aMimRq CWko-gurU vfly bxo jdik kihxf cfhIdf hY afAu! pfhul lYky isWK hox dy hWkdfr bxIey. ikMnI ajIb bx rhI hY, sfzI bolI. mWqlb ieh "aMimRq CWk ky qF asF gurU vfly bnxf hY" nhIN qF isWK qF asIN hF hI. drasl ieh sfzI sLbdfvlI c inWq nvyN ivgfV vI sfzy aMdr af cuWkI gurbfxI soJI qy jIvn dI Gft df hI pRgtfvf, isWK dI mUl qfrIP qy vI suaflIaf insLfn KVy kr rhy hn.

Kflsy df kdy vI jnm idn nhIN- iek hor koqfhI aWj asIN ieh kr hry hF jdoN afp hI pRcfrI jf rhy hF ik 1699 dI ivsfKI, Kflsy df jnm idn hY. iPr AusnMU ies ZMg nfl pysL kr rhy hF ijvyN ik sMn 1469 qoN 1699 qIk 230 sflF c hoieaf hI kuWJ nhIN. kOm kysfDfrI vI hoeI qF dsmysL jI dy jIvn kfl dy afKrI nO sflF c, pihlF sfry ihMdU hI sn. pfhul lYx df nIXm bixaf qF Auh vI 1699 qoN, pMQ cilaf qF 1699 qoN. kul imlfky iek qrIky asIN dsmysL jI nMU vI pihlIaF nON pfqsLFhIaF qoN aWz sfbq krn dy dosLI bx cuWky hF aqy isWK dI mUl qfrIP nMU vI Klq-mlq krn df kfrx, afp hI bxy hoey hF.

pihlI gWl qF ieh hY ik Kflsy df kdy koeI jnm nhIN hMudf. Kflsf sdIvI hY qy ieh mnuWK mfqr df mUl Drm hY. Kflsf qF isWK df hI lWkb hY, iksy hor leI nhIN-isMG asIN aKvfey sMn 1699 c jdoN sfzy nfvF dI isMG qy kOr dy lPLjLF nfl qbdIlI kIqI geI, sfzy qoN jfq-goq sUck lPLjL htf ky sfnUM iek pRvfr df rUp dy idWqf igaf. sfzf Drm pihlF vI isWK sI qy bfd c vI isWK- ijsdI pihcfx, prIBfsLf, qfrIP gurbfxI ivc pihly jfmyN qoN hI dy idqI geI hY. gurbfxI dy gurU hox df isDFq vI pihly jfmyN qoN hI lfgU sI. gurbfxI mnuWK nUM rjLf dy jIvn c ilafAux leI jIvn jfc hY. pRBU dI rjLf c clx dI pihcfx hI pRBU dI rjLf c pRfpq pUrn kysfDfrI srUp c ikAuN-ikMqU nf krnf hY. kysfDfrI, kMGfDfrI, kiChrfDfrI-asIN pihly jfmy qoN hF. sLsqrDfrI (ikRpfn DfrI) asIN CyvyN jfmyN qoN ho gey. isWK dI qfrIP nMU shI arQF c sMsfr sfhmxy pysL krn leI sfnMU afpxIaF ieiqhfisk imlfvtF qoN sucyq hox dI vI loV hY.

Kflsy nMU isWK Drm dy rUp c pRgt kIqf gurU nfnk pfqsLfh ny pihly jfmyN c aqy afpxy hI dWsvyN jfmyN c Bfv sMn 1699 nMU iesdy nfvF, kkfrF afid c ieksfrqf bKsLky iesnMU sMpUrnqf bKsLI. iesqrHF isWK dI qfrIP kyvl Auh mnuWK hI isWK hY jo srUp krky sMpUrn kysfDfrI hY qy ijMny KMzy dI pfhul lY ky gurU gRMQ sfihb jI dI jIvn isiKaf Aupr clx df bfkfiedf pRx ilaf hY ik Auh apxf jIvn inrol gurbfxI afigaf c hI bqIq krygf. afAu! asIN lfmbMd hoky apxI aslIaq nUM sMsfr sfhmxy jfgRq krIey. 024s97.5s050

isWK dI qfrIPL ieh pypr imqI 26.10.97 idn mMglvfr nUM gurmiq igafn gosLTI, gurduafrf sRI gurU isMG sBf, mfzl tfAux aYkstYNsLn luiDafxf (pMjfb) ivKy lyKk rfhIN afp piVaf igaf.




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