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isWK sLqfbdIaF-kFvF rOlI (iksLq pihlI)

pRo: ieMdr isMG Gwgf

prAupkfrI, mnuwKqf dy drdI siqgurU nfnk dyv jI!

dovyN hwQ joVky crnf qy mwQf tyikaf pRvfn krnf jI. ies nfcIj ny bhuq sfry q ilKy, lYkcr kIqy ikqfbF Cpf ky mn dI vydnf iswK pMQ dy mflkF awgy rwKx dI koi kIqI. iksy ny myrI gwl vwl iDafn nF idwqf. mn bVf klipaf ik ieh lok iswK pMQ hnyrI guPf vwl Dwk rhy hn. qbfhkun dldl ivwc grk kr rhy hn. apxy hI gur BfeIaF df KUn CMny Br Br zIk rhy hn. afpxy hI bwicaF dIaF lfF dy mInfr Ausfr ky AuWpr bYT rMg rlIaF mnf rhy hn. Drm muKI`` (?) iswK ikrqIaF dI kmfeI dovyN hwQIN luwt ky qjorIaF Br rhy hn. aijhI kUVu amfvs`` ivwc myry drd iks smJxf suxnf sI ? myry hMJUaF kIhny hmdrdI nfl pUMJxf sI ? hfr huwt ky siqgurU ipqf jIAu, afpxy idl dy irs rhy jm quhf ivKfx lwgf hF. hor bhuq sfry vIr BYxF BI quhf Kycl idMdy rihMdy hn. inwjI loVF dI pUrqI vfsqy bynqIaF krdy hI rihMdy hn. mYN vcn idMdf hF afpxy vfsqy quhfzo koloN kuwJ nhIN mMgFgf. bs iehI bynqI hY ik myrI icwTI pVH rUr lYxI. vkq kwZky phuMc rsId rUr Byj dyxI. bfkI aglI kfrvfeI leI koeI bfnxUM rUr bMnxf.

gurU ipqf jI! jdoN quhfzy dsvyN jfmy dI (1966) qIsrI qfbdI mnfeI geI qF Aus vkq myrI Aumr vIh sfl ho cuwkI sI. bhuq sfry hor rDflUaF nfl rlky mYN BI rDf dy Puwl`` arpx kIqy. bhuq QfvF qy kIrqn drbfr hoey vfjy ZolkF KVky lMgr cwly, ardfsF hoeIaF, jYkfry gjfey gey. quhfzI mwq iksy ivrly ny pRfpq kIqI hovygI. AuN iswKI dy infn AuWcy JulfAux dy dmgjy bhuq mfry gey. keIaF ny lIzrIaF cmkfeIaF, iksy ny mfieaf Augrfh ky jybF Br leIaF. iPr sfry gPlq dI lMmI nINd sON gey. mY bfad ivwc iksy isafxy iswK ny dwisaf ik 1666 ivwc goibMd rfey iswKF dy gurU nhIN bxy sn. gurU qyg bhfdr jI dI hfdq qoN bfad XfnI 1675 ivwc Auh gurgwdI qy ibrfjy sn. pr quhfzy dUly pMQ ny iewk sfihbfdy goibMd rfey df jnm idn gurU jfx ky mnfieaf. pRfpqI bfry qF iksy soicaf hI nhIN.

iswK pMQ dy bfnI siqugrU jIE! quhfzf afgmn idvs 1969 ivwc iswK smfj ny pUrI fno Okq nfl mnfieaf. ikAuNik ieh pMj sOvF jnm idn jo sI. dy ivdy ivwc bVy lYkcr hoey, kIrqn drbfr sjfey. pfTF dIaF lVIaF rKfeIaF. ngr kIqrn (jlUs) kwZy lMgr iqafr hoey Cky. ardfsF dygF pusqkF sYmInfr[[[[[. quhfzy nF qy iewk kflj pitafly Kohilaf igaf gurmiq kflj``. ies kflj ivwc koeI vIh ku ividafrQIaF qoN vwD nOjvfn Drm ividaf lYx vfsqy dfl nhIN hoey. pRbMDkF vwloN or pfAux qy ieh adfrf pMjfbI XUnIvristI ny afpxy nfl joV ilaf qy mfnqf dy idwqI. ijs kfrx 95 pRqIq Krcf srkfr vwloN imlxf pRvfn hoieaf. koeI wk nhIN pRoPYsrF dIaF qnKfhF keI guxf vwD geIaF. ividafrQIaF dI pVHfeI Gt geI. afm ijhy srkfrI kfljF vrgf iewk mfmUlI kflj bxky rih igaf. srkfrI hdfieqF anusfr, slybs ivwc bRhmf ibn, rfm qy ikRn dIaF kQf khfxIaF bVI fn nfl pVfeIaF jfx lwgIaF. awj iewQy quhfzy inrml inafry pMQ dI pVHfeI aqy rihq dI prpwkqf nhIN isKfeI jFdI. sgoN BfrqI muwKDfrf`` dI pVHfeI krfeI jFdI hY. ipqf jI! quhfzy nF qy vYsy qF bhuq sfry zyry tksflF, gurdvfry KuMbF vFg AuWgy hoey QF QF vyKy jf skdy hn. pr aMgRyI nfm vflI, quhfzy pMj sOvyN jnm idn smripq gurU nfnk PfAUNzyn`` DVy bMdI df ikfr ho ky rih geI. kflj vwloN mUMh moV ilaf. bs quhfzy nfm dI vrqoN vfly Ausy kflj dy ahfqy ivwc, bhuqI mfieaf kmfAux leI iewk skUl Kohl idwqf igaf hY. pMjfb dy bfkI skUlF vrgf iewk hor skUl.

siqgurU jIE! qusIN nOvyN jfmy ivwc bhuq Aupkfr kIqy. quhfzf gurgwdI sMBflx df idn qF nhIN mnfieaf jFdf. hIdI idn asIN mnfAuNdy af rhy hF. Drm hyq jo sfkf qusIN 1675 ivwc vrqfieaf sI, AusdI qIjI qfbdI iswKF ny 1975 ivwc mnfeI. AuhI purfxf rfg AuhI kIrqn pfT ardfsF qy lMgr[[[[. quhfzy kIqy AupkfrF rsmI qrIky hI Xfd kIqf igaf. iksy df inwkf ijhf kMm sMvfr dyeIey, kuwJ mdq kr dyeIey, sbMDq ivakqI aihsfnmMd hoxoN nhIN rih skdf. ikwzy aikrqGx lok hF asIN, quhfzy iswK aKvfx vfly. quhfzy bfry koeI iewk BI XfdgfrI kfrj nF afrMiBaf. vYsy qF ijnHF lokF leI qusIN hIdI pfeI sI Auh vwzy pwDr qy quhfzI iswiKaf aqy jIvnI dunIaF qwk pucFdy. AuhnF ny qF nf Lukrypx df sbUq dy hI idwqf pr quhfzy apixaF BI qF AuhI kuwJ kIqf hY. nOvyN nfnk jI quhfzy srIr nfl sbMDq bhuq sfry gurdvfry bxy hoey hn. AuQoN pMzF mfieaf dIaF iewkwqr krky bhuqy lokF ny afpxIaF koTIaF Ausfr leIaF, kfrF KrId leIaF, rfjsI kursIaF qy jf ibrfjy. quhfzy hId ho cuwky srIr nfl sbMDq iqMn bhuq vwzy gurdvfry AuWsr cuwky hn. ijQy hIdI hoeI sIs gMj`` cFdnI cONk idwlI. ijwQy srIr df sskfr hoieaf, rkfbgMj idwlI. BfeI jYqf jI ny quhfzf pfvn hId sIs cuwk ky anMdpur jfidaF, ijwQy ijwQy pVfa kIqf, Auh sfry gurdvfry. anMdpur ijwQy pfvn hId sIs df sskfr kIqf igaf Auh BI sIs gMj hY. aOrMgjyb df hukm sI ik quhfzy srIr dy aMg kwt kwtky idwlI dy sfry vwzy cOkF ivwc ltkf idwqy jfx. kuwJ isr iPry`` iswKF ny aijhf nf hox idwqf. vYsy qusIN qF sdf prAupkfr hI kIqf hY. jy quhfzy srIr dy tukVy, sfry cOkF ivwc tMg idwqy jFdy qF Auqny hI hor ieiqhfsk`` gurdvfry nf AuWsr jFdy ? AuhnF sfrIaF QfvF qy BI nmkfrF krn vflIaF kqfrF lgdIaF. mfieaf dy aMbfr lg jFdy. quhfzy keI syvk`` iswKF dI grIbI kwtI jFdI. keI sfry pfTIaF, gRMQIaF, kIrqnIaF, kQfvfckF sohxf`` rugfr iml jFdf. pRDfnF, skwqrF, KjfncIaF dIaF qjorIaF Br jFdIaF, cODrF cmk jFdIaF, rfjsI TfT bfT bx jFdf[[[[.

ikrpf inDfn ipqf gurU jI! qyry syvkF ny quhfzy qIsry srIr df afgmn purb goieMdvfl ivKy 1979 ivwc bVI DUmDfm`` nfl mnfieaf. mnfeIey ikAuN nf ieh pMj sOvF jnm idn jo sI. BfvyN qusIN gurU pdvI 74 sfl dI Aumr ivwc puwjy. iesy srIrk jfmy rfhIN swT ku sfl dI Aumr qwk gurmq qoN Ault kfrj BI krdy rhy. cfhIdf qF ieh sI ik 53 dy sfl muwK rwKky gurgwdI idvs mnfey jFdy. ikAuNik qusIN sMn 1553 ivwc nfnk joq sMBflI sI. ies gwl dI pRvfh nf kridaF 1979 goieMdvfl ivKy (iPr jnm asQfn bfsrky ikAuN neI ?) dy ivdy ivwc gwzIaF motrF aqy pYdlF mfrcF rfhIN sMgqF df lwKF dI igxqI ivwc jmGwtf juiVaf. QF QF kIrqn smfgm, lMgr, ardfsF nfhry jYkfry, bfAulI ienfn``. curfsI kwt dyx dy ivvf. amrU inQfvF afKky quhfzf apmfn, bhuq sfrIaF JUTIaF kQf khfxIaF[[[[. pMQ dI cVHdIklf df koeI iewk BI kfrj nhIN AulIikaf igaf, ijQy quhfzy bwicaF iswKI dI sUJ pRfpq huMdI.

inrMkfrI toly vwloN 1978 ivwc iswKF df kqlfm, bfad ivwc AuWiTaf roh, BfrqI POjF vwloN jUn 84 ivwc kIqf igaf pMjfb qy iswK mfrU hmlf. Gor qbfhI, akfl qKq df ZYhxf, sfry pfsy KUn dy diraf. mwkfr akflI lIzrF dy Bfrq srkfr ivruwD ihrIly ibafn. ies sB df iswtf ieh inkilaf ik iksy BivwK muKI sUJbUJ vflI nIqI qoN ibnF axKIly iswK gBrUaF ny hiQafr sFB ley. srkfrI qfkqF vwloN lwgBwg ZfeI lwK nOjuafnF df vihI Gfx. axigxq pRkfr dy ulm. dunIaF dy dUr aMdy lIzrF ny hIdF dy KUn df byEVk muwl vwitaf qy afpxI kOm dy hwk ivwc sfrQk Pfiedy pRfpq kIqy. sMn 1989 ivwc jdoN iswK lIzr MP bxky pfrlImYNt ivwc puwjy sn, qF iswKF dy ichiraF dI AudfsI qy idl aMdrlf KOP mihsUs krky mulfiem isMG Xfdv ny lfjvfb itwpxI kIqI sI - lMmF smF srkfrI ulm dy kfly dOr ivwcoN gur ky iswK vIr pfrlImYNt ivwc puwjy hn. asIN iehnF qoN hONslf qy bhfdrI vflI siprt lYxf cfhuMdy hF. pr aPsos ik iswK Brf Kud hIx Bfvnf coN bfhr nhIN inkl sky.`` sgoN awj qwk AuhI hIx Bfvnf iswKF ivwc aMdr qwk Ds geI pRqIq ho rhI hY.

ipqf jIAu! quhfzy CyvyN jfmy df cfr sO sflf afgmn idvs mnfAux dI iqafrI dy qihq 1994 dy akqUbr mhIny ivwc gurU kI vzflI qoN Kflsf mfrc`` afrMB kIqf igaf. jlMDr, luiDafxf qy ropV pVfa krdf hoieaf cOQy idn ieh do ku lwK df ivfl iewkwT anMdpur puwj ky, ibnF koeI kfrj AulIky Gro GrI prq igaf. iesy lVI qihq hirgoibMdpur qoN urU krky aglf vwzf Kflsf mfrc`` qlvMzI sfbo puwijaf. iewQy BI lwKF rDflU af juVy. siqgurU jIAu! qusIN qF jfxI jfx ho, Blf quhfzy cfr sOvyN purb nfl ieh mfrcF df koeI sbMD juVdf hY ? iPr qusIN iehnF cODrIaF iPtkfrdy ikAuN nhIN ? ieh quhfzy Boly rDflU iswKF df pYsf qy smF ikAuN brbfd krdy hn ? siqgurU jI muafP krnF! kI qusIN nhIN vyiKaf (jfxI jfxqf) ik rfjsI lok qF kursIaF kfrn JgVdy hn. hfey! ieh quhfzy dr dy bhuq vwzy syvfdfr (afKx kUkr-gulfm gurU kf) isroipaF kfrn, quwC ijhy PlF qy myivaF kfrn mYN iewk dUjy dI pwg hwQ pfAuNdy vyK cuwikaf hF. ieiqhfs ivwc piVHaf hY ik qusIN dsvyN jfmy ivwc, AuhnF dIaF mMd krqUqF vyK ky, msMd toly iswKf dy gloN lfh idwqf sI. pr siqgurU jI ieh qF sgoN hor kqIflI rUp Dfrky grIb iswKF df KUn pI rhy ny. hux iehnF srkfrI srpRsqI, (gurdvfrf aYkt 1925 qihq) BI hfsl hY. ieh gwl hr iswK ny suxI hoeI hY ik qusIN CyvyN qy dsvyN srUp ivwc klgI sjfeI sI. qusI qF smrwQ ho, pr kI drbfr sfihb dy syvfdfr jF akfl qKq dy syvfdfr klgI lf skdy hn ? fied klgI qF CotI cIj hY siqgurU jI! ieh qF awjkwl qfjpoI`` krfAuNdy hn. suixaf sI ik iswK gurU Gr dy syvfdfr hn. afh qfjdfr bfdfh kdoN qy ikvyN bx gey ? mYN mUrK rUr hI smJf dyxf jI. quhfzy nimq CyvyN jfmy vflf Kflsf mfrc kroVF rupY brbfd krky TMZy bsqy ivwc jf ipaf. koeI pRfpqI nhIN hoeI.

iehnF hI idnF ivwc (sqMbr 1995) ivv iswK sMmyln kIqf igaf. siqgurU jI qusIN qF pYsy tky vwloN bypRvfh ho. quhfzy crnF dy BOiraF vwloN quhfzI golk ivwc rDf sihq arpx kIqf lwgBwg pMjfh kroV ruipaf PUk idwqf igaf. vwzy vwzy sYmInfr hoey, prcy pVHy gey. vwz akfrI rMg brMgy ieiqhfr Cpy. jQydfrF dIaF gwzIaF bhuq qyj dOVIaF. dyF bdyF dy cwkr kwty, mfieaf iewkwqr kIqI. lMgr cwly, vIzIE iPlmF bxIaF, jYkfry, nfhry, sropy, iKqfb, snmfn. dunIaF Br qoN iswKF dy hjUm afx Zuwky. bws ardfsF krky lMgr Ckky sB afpo afpxy GrF cly gey jybF KflI krvf ky mxf mUMhI mn qy Bfr lYky. pMQ dy Bly vflf kIqf igaf kfrj ies smfgm ivwc ikDry nrIN nhIN ipaf.

swcy siqgurU jI! ieh gUMjdI afvf qF quhfzy qwk avw puwjI hovygI ik Kflsy df iqMn sO sflf sMpUrxqf idvs 1999 quhfzy syvkF ny ikMnI fn`` nfl mnfieaf hY. suK nfl quhfzy sB qoN lfzly iswK, ijs qusIN rihmq krky bhuq Dn pdfrQ qy jmIn qF bKI hI hY, sgoN iswKF df sB qoN qfkqvr lIzr BI bxf idwqf hY. hux Auh pMQ ijho ijhf srUp jF isDFq dyvy koeI rok nhIN skdf, ikAuNik qusIN AusdI aMg sMg hoky shfieqf kr rhy ho. myrI murfd sRI: pRkf isMG bfdl qoN hY jI. Aus Aus dy imwqrF ny Kflsy df jnm idn`` DUmDfm nfl mnfAux vfsqy sO kroV ruipaf idwqf. iPr bdly ivwc ieh kMtrol afpxy hwQ ivwc lY ilaf ik ieh idn ikvyN mnfxf hY. qusIN iswDy swcKMz ivwcoN vyiKaf hovygf ik ikvyN dy df pRDfn mMqrI atl ibhfrI vfjpfeI, iswK sMgqF gurmirafdf idRV krvf irhf sI. dy dy gRih mMqrI aYl[ ky[ azvfnI iswKF dy soihly gf irhf sI. qIh pYNqI lwK rDflU anMdpur huMmhumf ky puwijaf. ieh afs lfeIN ik pMQ dI ibgVI sMvfrn vfsqy, AuWjVy pRvfrF bsfAux vfsqy, pMjfb dy Kohy gey hwkF qy pYdfvfrI vsIilaF dI pRfpqI vfsqy, isr joVky koeI pRogrfm AulIikaf jfvygf. iswKI vDygI pMQ Kuhfl hovygf. hMJU pUMJy jfxgy, ichiraF qy muskfn afvygI. iswKI df cfnx Gr Gr puwjygf. Drm pRcfr leI koeI abfr, mYgIn, iltrycr, sYtylfeIt cYnl df pRbMD nhIN kIqf jfvygf. nOjvfnF dy rugfr bfry jbfn qwk nf KohlI geI. kuwJ nftk ijhy hoCy, ibafn dfgy gey, mInfry Kflsf``, afid dy iKzOxy qyry pMQ awgy prosy gey. ipqf gurU jI! afzr afP Kflsf`` ijhy snmfn quhfzy qq qoN ijnHF bKy gey Auh kysF dI byadbI krn vfly, rfbF pIx vfly, ivBcfr krn vfly, irvqF nfl koTIaF Br lYx vfly, mfmUlI nwcx gfAux vfly, iswKF luwt puwt ky brbfd krn vfilaF mnuwKqf dy doKIaF qy mkfrF snmfnq`` kIqf igaf. iesy sfl (1999) dy dsMbr mhIny ivwc 300 sflf Kfs qohPf bfdl jI dy siqkfry hoey igRh mMqrI lfl ikRn azvfnI qy pRDfn mMqrI vfjpfeI jI ny iewk aijhf kfrnfmf kIqf jo iswDf iswKI qy mfrU vfr sI. ieh pfpIaF ny Purmfn jfrI kIqf ik agr koeI ivakqI buwD Drm, iesfeI Drm, ieslfm Drm pVHygf qF Bfrq srkfr vwloN shfieqf imldI rhygI. jy koeI gurmwq bfry pVHygf Aus shfieqf nhIN imlygI. hF iesdy bdly gFDI stwzI vfilaf gRFt imlygI, iswK Drm vfsqy PMz nhIN imlygf. siqgurU jI quhfzy sB qoN ipafry vwzy puwqr pRkf isMG ny (aqy bfkI juMzlI) ivroD ivwc aOKf sfh BI nf ilaf. sO kroV dy ky iswKI dy jVIN kuhfVf vfh idwqf igaf.

kI dwsF siqgurU bfbf jI! sfry lok gwlF krdy ny ik qusIN jfxI jfx ho. jy ieh gwl swc hY qF qusIN pMQ doKIaF hI iswKI dI vfgzor ikAuN PVfeI hoeI hY ? ikqy pYsy qy Bojn nfl Auh quhfzI bhuqI syvf`` qF nhIN kr rhy ? grIb iswKF kol qF msIN mwQf tykx leI ruipaf DylI huMdI hY. afh apRYl 2004 ivwc quhfzy dUjy jfmy df KzUr ivKy pMj sO sflf jn mnfieaf igaf hY. afs krdy sF ik iswKF leI kflj jF XUnIvristI KuwlygI, ikwqf muKI sMsQfvF KuwlxgIaF. iswK bwicaf igafn imlygf rugfr imlygf. AuWQy KzUr ivKy iewk prAupkfrI`` bfbf jI ny quhfzy dUly pMQ df keI kroV Krc krky, bdyF ivwcoN bhuq mihMgIaF mInF mMgvfky iewk kMipAUtr kMtrolz`` imAUIam iqafr kIqf hY. amrIkf dy iewk bhuq isafxy iswK`` ny imwtI Gwty vfly dy ivwc aijhIaF mInF lfAux dI nyk slfh idwqI ik puwCo kuwJ nf. Auh mInF qoqy vFg bolky gurmiq`` df igafn idaf krngIaF. mnuwK cuwp cfp mInF df Bfx suxngy. iPr ijvyN ik afm huMdf hY mInf QoVy smyN mgroN kMm krnF bMd kr dyxgIaF. Krfb/nkfrf ho cuwkIaF mInF kol iewk iewk mnuwK KVHf idwqf jfvygf. qy bolky dwsygf ik ies QF pihlF ieh mIn hoieaf krdI sI. kroVF rupY zkfr ky mIn ivgV geI, awgoN asIN jfxkfrI idaf krFgy. siqgurU jI AuhI jYkfry, nfhry, dygF, ardfsF, Kflsf mfrcF nfl iswKF ny quhfzIaF KuIaF`` pRfpq kr leIaF hn.

bfbf jI quhfzy nUrfnI Aupdy df cfr sOvF pRkf idvs BI 2004 ivwc hI af igaf. aMimRqsr ivKy pihlI sqMbr ds lwK rDfvfn mfeI BfeI df iewkwT hoieaf. lwgBwg iewk arb rupY dI Bytf iewkwqr ho geI. dIp mflfvF hoeIaF, miTafeIaF vMzIaF, ngr kIrqn hoey. Drm Aupdy dyx leI rfjnIqI dy gMd ivwc gl qwk Dsy hoey lok igrJf vFg afx Auqry. qy quhfzIaF inrml buD, pRIqmfn iswK sMgqF pfp kI jM`` cVHf ilafAux vfly, ikqy swjn Twg dy syvk, iksy pfsy mlk Bfgo dy BfeIbMd, ikqy pVHy ilKy mUrK`` Drm Aupdy dyx lg pey. sPYd coilaF vfly, nIly bfixaF vfly, BgvyN krn vfly, smyq sUhy JMizaF vfly, quhfzy pfvn PurmfnF dI oBf sMgqF kMn pfVvIaF afvfF rfhIN suxf rhy sn. iehnF vwzy iewkwTF ivwc bfkI sfrf kuwJ sI, bs koeI DrmI purK Drm dI ikrq kmfeI krn vflf mnuwK, Drm smJky Aus muqfbk jIvn ijAux vflf iensfn nhIN idws irhf sI jo kihxI qy krxI df pUrf sUrf hovy. bfbf jI bhuq pYsf roiVHaf igaf hY Drm dy nfm qy. bhuq pYsf kmfieaf igaf hY Drm dy nfm qy. ies vwzy ngfrKfny ivwc Drm df koeI aM asUl icrfg lY ky ZUMizaF BI nhIN lBdf sI. nfly siqgurU jI bd gurU df pihlf pRkf ieh ikvyN sI ? asIN mUrK ijhy syvk smJx qoN asmrQ hF. qusIN ijs idn afpxy muKfribMd qoN pihlf pfvn bcn Aucfrn kIqf - pFDy , pRoihq , rfey bulfr , vYd jF dfeI , mfqf ipqf jF BYx nfnkI jI . jo Aupdy qusIN pihlI vfrI idwqf AuhI asl ivwc quhfzI bfxI df pihlf pRkf sI. sMpfdnf hoeI sI 1604 ivwc. qy sMpUrxqf pRvfn kIqI jfvygI akqUbr 1708 ivwc. bfkI jo kuwJ hoieaf su hoieaf pr quhfzy Aupdy ikqy nyVy BI nhIN Ptkx idwqf igaf. hF iewk vwzf sfrf mylf ijhf rUr sI ieh. ---cldf




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