.

iswKF ivwc vYsfKI dI mhwqqf

iswK Drm dy pYrokfrF df vYsfKI nfl gUVf sbMD hY. vYsfKI ijQy KyqI krn vfly pMjfbIaF leI nvF sfl huMdf hY, AuQy iswK Drm dy pihly gurU nfnk dyv jI df jnm vI 15 aprYl 1469 eI: nUM vYsfK ivwc hoieaf sI. (hvflf: ikqfb, kwqk ik vsfK[ ihstorIan sR[krm isMG). ies mhIny dy Dfrimk pwK dy nfl-nfl siBafcfirk Kyz myilaF df sMbMD vI muwZ qoN hI irhf hY. ieQoN qIk ik kudrq vwloN vI ies mhIny ruwKF afid dy nvy pwqy afAux df smF hY. ijvyN gurU sfihb bfrF mfh ivwc PurmfAuNdy hn: vYsfKu Blf, sfKf vys kry ]( m:1, pMnf 1108) so, ho skdf hY gurU goibMd isMG jI ny dunIaF dy sfhmxy iswKF nUM iek vwKrI kOm dy qOr qy pRgt krn aqy nvF nfm isMG, kOr dyx vfsqy ies mhIny nUM cuixaf hovy. iswK Drm ivwc vYsfK dy mhIny dI mhwqqf bfry BfeI gurdfs jI ilKdy hn: Gir Gir aMdir Drmsfl hovY kIrqnu sdf ivsoaf] (vfr1, pAuVI 27)

smyN smyN anusfr akfl purK kuJ rihbr lokfeI nUM shI jIvn jIx df rsqf dwsx leI Byjdf hY ikAuNik iswKI isDFq anusfr akfl purK jUnf ivwc nhIN afAuNdf. ies bfry gurbfxI sfnUM spwsLt krdI hY: sgl prfD dyih loronI ] so muKu jlAu ijqu khih Tfkuru jonI ] (m:5, pMnf 1136) so jdoN gurU nfnk dyv jI dunIaF qy afey Aus smyN jnqf Dfrimk qy isafsI lIzrF vwloN luwtI jf rhI sI. lokF df mnobl ibwlkul izwg cuwkf sI. AuhnF qy lMmy smyN qoN huMdy rhy julm hox kfrn hux AunFH dIaF afqmfvF nUM muV surjIq krn leI lMmF smF cfhIdf sI. ies krky gurU nfnk dyv jI dI joq (ivcfrDfrf) ny dws jfimaF rfhIN qkrIbn 230 sfl Auprflf kIqf.

gurU nfnk dyv jI ny lokF dI mr cuwkI afqmF nUM ijvfAuNx leI Audm arMiBaf qy afiKaf ik jy qusIN iswKI mfrg qy cwl ky akfl purK dI pRfpqI aqy hIxBfvnf Kwqm krnI hY qF afpxy afp nUM gurU awgy arpn kro:

jAu qAu pRym Kylx kf cfAu ] isru Dir qlI glI myrI afAu ]

iequ mfrig pYru DrIjY ] isru dIjY kfix n kIjY ] (m: 1, pMnf 1412)

ies dy nfl hI AuhnF afpxy pYrokfrF nUM kys nf kwtxy qy AunFH dI sPfeI vfsqy kMGf rwKxf df nIXm pRcfiraf. kysF dy rwKx bfry gurU nfnk sfihb dy iehnF sLbdF qoN vI sbUq imldy hn:

qyry bMky loiex dMq rIsflf ] sohxy nk ijn lmVy vflf ]( m:1, pMnf 567)

kkY kys puMzr jb hUey, ivxu sfbUxY Aujilaf ]

jm rfjy ky hyrU afey, mfieaf kY sMgil bMiD lieaf ]( m: 1, pMnf 432)

AuhnF qoN bafd coQy gurU sfihbfn ny iswK dI rihxI bfry Purmfn jfrI kIqf:

gur siqgur kf jo isKu aKfey su Blky AuiT hir nfmu iDafvY ]

Audmu kry Blky prBfqI iesnfnu kry aMimRqsir nfvY ]

Aupdyis gurU hir hir jpu jfpY siB iklivK pfp doK lih jfvY ]

iPir cVY idvsu gurbfxI gfvY bhidaf AuTidaf hir nfmu iDafvY ]

jo sfis igrfis iDafey myrf hir hir so gurisKu gurU min BfvY ] (m:4, pMnf 305)

gurU nfnk jI ny pMjvyN jfmy ivwc iPr iek vfr iswKF nUM sucyq krn leI Purmfieaf sI ik afpxI hAumY iqafg ky iPr afpxy afp nUM gurU awgy arpn kro.

slok ] pihlf mrxu kbUil, jIvx kI Ciz afs ]

hohu sBnf kI ryxukf, qAu afAu hmfrY pfis ]1] ( m: 5, pMnf 1102)

CyvyN jfmy ivwc gurU nfnk jI ny ivcr ky iswKF nUM ikRpfn rwKx df pRcfr kIqf . Aus smyN iswK jLuarq nfl jflmF df mukfblf krn df hOslf krn lwg pey aqy iswKF ny muglF dy iKlfP lVfeIaF vI lVIaF. ijnFH ivwc apRYl 1634 eI: nUM aMimRqsr hoeI jMg Kfs vrnx Xog hY. jdoN gurU jI afpxI bIbI vIro dy ivafh dy pRbMD ivwc ruJy sn.

iPr nfvyN jfmy ivwc gurU qyg bhfdr sfihb nfl idlI ivwc sLhIdI dyx vfilaF dIaF anoKIaF imsflF dunIaF nUM vyKx vfsqy imlIaF. iehnF kurbfnIaF qoN ieh iswD huMdf hY ik Aus smyN ijhVy lok iswKI ivwc sLfml sn Auh pUrI qrFH cVHdI klf ivwc sn.

iswK Drm dI nINh Bfvy gurU nfnk dyv jI ny pihly jfmy ivwc rwKI sI, pr ies nUM dUsry DrmF dy pYrokfrF nfloN vwKrI srIrk qy nFm qoN pihcfxy jfxf ajy vI bfkI sI. imsfl dy qOr qy ijvyN ies smyN iswKF ivwcoN bxy inrMkfrI, nfmDfrIey, akfl purK dI hoNd qoN munkr kfmryz qy rfDf suafmI afpxy nFm nfl hflI vI isMG-kOr vflf nFm vrqdy hn; ievyN hI Aus smyN iswK vI ihMdU qy muslmfnf vflf nFa vrqdy sn .ies qrFH Kflsf pMQ dI sfjnf nfl nfnk nfm lyvf iek jQybMDk ZFcy ivwc bwJ gey. gurU goibMd isMG jI aqy AuhnF dy iswKF ny ies aMimRq dI Gtxf vfprn qoN pihlF ihMdU phfVI rfijaF vwlo kIqy hmilaF df zwtky mukfblf kIqf qy ijwqF pRfpq kIqIaF . iehnF ivwcoN pihlI lVfeI BMgfxI df XuD bhuq msLhUr hY. BfvyN ky ieh lVfeIaF afpxI rwiKaf krn leI lVnIaF peIaF sn pr ienFH qoN gurU sfihb nUM ieh XkIn ho igaf ik iswK afpxI rwiKaf kr skdy hn.

iswKF df pRclq krmkFzF qoN hwtky iek akfl purK dy AupfsLk hox df sbUq ies sfKI qoN imldf hY. afKdy hn ik iek pMzq sLincrvfr gurU sfihb kol afieaf qy afKx lwgf, "sLincr gRih dy AupfE vfsqy mYnUM qyl, mfh qy lohf dfn kro". gurU sfihb ny soicaf, kI iswKF ivwc hfly vI sLuB-asLuB, vihm-Brm, aMDivsLvfs qy krmkFz qF nhIN Psy pey hn ? ieh jfxn vfsqy gurU jI ny pMzq nUM ikhf, ik myry iswK AuQy bYTy hn jf ky AuhnF kolo dfn lY lE. jd pMzq iswKF kol igaf qF iswKF ny kolo dfn dyx dI bjfey sgoN Ausdf qyl, mfh qy lohf rwK ilaf aqy mfh pIhky qyl ivwc pkOVy bxfey qy lohy dy kVy bxfky bfhF ivwc pf ley. ieh swB kuJ vyKky gurU jI KusL hoey ik hux myry iswK pujfrI jmfq vwloN pfey aMDivsLvfsF qy vihmF BrmF qoN njLfq pf ky isrP iek akfl purK dy AupfsLk bx gey hn aqy gurbfxI dy AunHF sLbdF qy pUry Auqrdy hn: khu kbIr jn Bey Kflsy, pRym Bgiq ijh jfnI ](pMnf 654)

gurU sfihb ny 30 mfrc 1699 eI: nUM anMdpur sfihb ivKy, kysgVH dy asQfn qy vYsfKI vfly idn iek vwzf iekwT kIqf. Aus smyN afp ny nMgI ikRpfn kwZ ky AuwcI avfjL ivwc afiKaf: "Drm dy vfsqy iek isr dI loV hY" koeI hY gurU df iswK jo sIs Byt kry"? Aus smyN lfhOr vfsI BfeI dieaf rfm ny af ky gurU awgy isr Byt kIqf. dUsrI vfrI idwlI df BfeI Drm dfs, iPr duafrkf dy BfeI mhokm cMd, jgnnfQ purI (AuVIsf) dy BfeI ihmMq rfie lFgrI aqy ibdr (krnftk) dy BfeI sfihb cMd hurF ny ies qrFH vfrI vfrI pMjf isrF dI mMg pUrI kIqI. ieh EhI mMg sI ijhVI gurU nfnk sfihb ny pihly jfmy ivwc kIqI sI: jAu qAu pRym Kylx kf cfAu ] isru Dir qlI glI myrI afAu ] pr ies smyN hwQ ivwc ikRpfn sI. gurU sfihb ny pihly jfmy ivwc ijhVf svfl iswKF nUM pfieaf sI, Ausy df hI dsvyN jfmy ivwc iemiqhfn ilaf jf irhf sI. ijs ivwc iswK pUry nMbr lYky pfs hoey sn. gurU sfihb ny iehnF pMjF iswKF nUM KMzy bfty dI pfhul idwqI. iehnF pMjF dy nfvF nfl isMG sLbd lfieaf. ies qrFH hux BfeI dieaf rfm qoN dieaf isMG bx gey qy Drm dfs qoN Drm isMG, mhokm cMd qoN mhokm isMG, ihMmq rfey qoN ihMmq isMG qy sfihb cMd qoN sfihb isMG bx gey . iehnF pMjF nUM pMj ipafry" kih ky invfijLaf . iPr rihq mrXfdf bfry jfxkfrI idwqI. ijs ivwc cfr muwK kurihqF qoN vrijaf. (1) kysF dI by-adbI (2) kuwTf Kfxf (3) pr-iesqRI jF pr-pursL df gmn ( Bogxf) ( 4) qmfkU df vrqxf .

Aus smyN iek hor vI anOKI Gtxf vfprI ijhVI iksy hor Drm ivwc nhIN vfprI hY, ik gurU afpxy cyilaF awgy hwQ krky aMimRq dI dfq mMgI hovy. gurU sfihb ny AunFH pMjf ipafiraF kolo hwQ joV ky aMimRq dI dfq mMgI qy aMimRq Cwikaf. ies qrFH afp goibMd rfie qoN goibMd isMG bx gey. ijhVI mrXfdf afp ny isMGF qy lfgU kIqI sI, AusnUM afpxy afp qy vI lfgU kIqf.

gurU sfihb ny KMzy bfty dI pfhul lYx vfly pRfxI vfsqy kuJ pihlF qoN cly af rhy kkfr qy kuJ Aus smyN lfgU krky ieh pMj kkfr lfjmI kr idwqy. (1) kwGf, kVf, ikRpfn, kCihrf, qy kys aqy hryk nfnk nfm lyvf nUM afpxy nFa nfl isMG qy kOr lfAux leI afiKaf aqy ivKfvy vfly krmkFzF, vihmF-BrmF, pfKMzF qy aMDivsLvfsF vrgIaF afqmf qOr qy igrfvt ilafAux vflIaF lfhnqF nUM afpxy nyVy nf Zuwkx dyx leI AupdysL kIqf.

gulfm muhIm-Aud-dIn anusfr, 20,000 pRfxIaF ny kuJ idnF ivwc aMimRq Ck ilaf. zf[ gMzf isMG anusfr ieh igxqI CyqI hI 80,000 qwk ho geI . ies qoN ieh iswD hY ik iswK pihlF hI kysfDfrI sn. awj asIN ijs nUM aMimRq Cwkxf afKdy hF, Aus smyN ies nUM KMzy bfty dI pfhul afKdy sn .

KMzy bfty dI pfhul iqafr krn vflI mhwqvpUrn Gtxf dy nfl do sfKIaF sfzy pRcfrk bVy PLKr nfl suxfAuNdy hn qy iswK vI ibnf socy smJy suxfAux vfly pRcfrkF qy idafl ho ky pYsy dyx lwg pYNdy hn pr ieh nhIN ivcfrdy ik ieh gwl gurU sfihbn jF iswKF dI sLfn vDfAux dy hwk ivwc jFdI hY jF Auwlt ? ijvyN afKdy hn ik gurU jI aMimRq iqafr krn smyN pqfsy pfAuxf Buwl gey sn aqy mfqf sfihb kOr jI ny af ky pfey. hYrfnI huMdI hY ieho aijhIaF gwlF suxky, ik ijhVy gurU sfihb ny eyzI vwzI skIm qihq kMm kr rhy sn, Auh pqfsy pfAuxy ikvyN Buwl skdy hn ? dUsry pfsy afKdy hn ik gurU swB jfxI jfx hY. kI asIN aijhf pRcfr krky gurU sfihb dI isPq kr rhy huMdy hF ? gurbfxI df ieh PLurmfn hY:

Bulx aMdir sBu ko aBulu gurU krqfru ]( m:1, pMnf 61 )

ies dy nfl sMbMDq hI iek hor sfKI suxfAudy hn ik "jdoN aMimRq iqafr hoieaf qF bfty ivwcoN do icwVIaF ny QoVf QoVf pI ilaf . Aus mgroN dovy icwVIaF afps ivwc lV-lV ky mr geIaF . ieh vyKky gurU sfihb ny mfqf jI vwloN ilaFdy pqfsy bfty ivwc pfey qF ik iswK aMimRq Cwk ky afps ivwc nf lVn".

ieh vI ivcfrn vflI gwl hY, ik aMimRq df mqlb Auh cIj ijs dy Cwkx nfl iensfn afqimk qy srIrk mOq dy BYa qoN rihq ho jFdf hY aqy Aus pRfxI ny afpxI mnmwq Cwzky, gurU vwloN idwqI isiKaf anusfr jIvn jIx df ZMg apnfAuxf huMdf hY. kI sfzy gurU sfihb lVn JgVn vfly bxfAudy sn/ hn ? ivcfrn vflI gwl hY ik aijhIaF sfKIaF suxfAux vfly iswK Drm dy dosq hn jF dusLmx ? gurbfxI df aMimRq bfry ieh PLurmfn hY:

aMimRq sbdu aMimRq hir bfxI ] siqguir syivaY irdY smfxI ] nfnk aMimRq nfmu sdf suKdfqf pI aMimRqu sB BuK lih jfvixaf ] ( m:3, pMnf 118-119}

keI kQfkfr qy lyKk qMbU ivwc gurU sfihb qy pMjF iswKF ivwc kI hoieaf bfry afpxI mwq anusfr ikafs afeIaF krdy rihMdy hn. jy gurU sfihb ny pVdf rwiKaf hY qF iksy iswK nUM kI hwk hY pVdy ivwc Jfkxdf ? AuQy kI hoieaf ieh qF akfl purK jF gurU sfihb jF pMj iswK jfxdy hn. gurU sfihb ny jo Bfxf vrqfieaf sfnUM Aus nUM mMnxf cfhIdf hY. mnGVHq krfmqI sfKIaF suxfky iswKF nUM vihmI-BrmI qy aMDivsLvfsI nhIN bxfAuxf cfhIdf.

kI vYsfKI df sLuB idhfVf mnfAux vfly sfzy Dfrimk, isafsI lIzr aqy pRcfrk vfikaf hI iswKI isDFq anusfr cwldy hn ? socx vflI gwl ieh vI hY, kI awj afpxy afp nUM Kflsf qy isMG aKvfAux vfly vfikaf hI isrP akfl purK dy AupfsLk hn ? kI awj asIN sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb jI dI bfxI dy qul iksy sfD dI ilKq nUM gurbfxI dws ky qF nhIN pRcfr rhy (kwcI bfxI) ? sfnUM aijhy krm afp nf krn aqy aijhy krmF df pRcfr krn vfilaF qoN vI sucyq rihxf cfhIdf hY.

not: ies smyN aMimRq df bftf iqafr krn vyly sRI akfl qKq vwloN pRvfinq pMQk rihq mrXfdf anusfr: jfpu, jfpu, 10 svwXy ( sRfvg suD vfly) bynqI cOpeI (hmrI kro hfQ dY rwCf qoN lY ky dusLt doK qy lyhu bcfeI qk) anMd sfihb df pfT pVHdy hn.

sfnUM vYsfKI vrgy pivqr iqAuhfr qF hI mubfrk hn jykr asIN sRI gurU gRMQ sfihb jI dy swcy suwcy igafn dI rosLnI anusfr afpxf jIvn jIx df mnorQ bxfeIey . afE, akfl purK dy dr qy ardfs krIey, ik sfnUM vI gurU pfqsLfh dy anmol bcnF qy clx df bl bKLsLy qF jo asIN gurU goibMd isMG jI dy Aucfry ies svweIey anusfr afpxy jIvn nUM Zfl skIey:

jfgq joiq jpy insbfsur eyk,

ibnF mn nYk n afnY ]

pUrn pRym pRqIq sjY,

bRq gor mVI mwt BUl n mfnY ]

qIrQ dfn dXf qp sMjm,

eyk ibnf nih eyk pCfnY]

pUrn joiq jgY Gt mY,

qb Kfls qfih lKfls jfnY] (svweIey pfqsLfhI dwsvIN)

gurU pMQ df dfs,

gursLrn isMG ksyl,

knyzf.




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